Introduction: The importance of using integrated treatment for multimorbidity has been increasingly recognized. One prevalent cluster of health conditions is multimorbidity of chronic pain, depression, and substance-use disorders, a common triad of illnesses among primary care patients. This brief report brings attention to an emerging treatment method of an integrated behavioral approach to improve health outcomes for individuals with these 3 conditions in the outpatient setting, particularly primary care.
Methods: A multidatabase search was conducted to identify studies of behavioral interventions targeting co-occurrence or multimorbidity among the 3 health conditions in the adult outpatient setting. An independent screening of the articles was accomplished by all authors with consensus on the final inclusion for review.
Results: Three studies met formal inclusion criteria for this review. The included studies evaluated cognitive behavioral therapy or combined motivational interviewing with cognitive behavioral therapy. Key findings from other reviews and additional studies are also included in this review to further inform the development of a common approach for treating this triad of conditions in primary care.
Conclusions: Although there has been increased recognition for more effective and practical behavioral treatments for patients with multiple chronic health conditions, the evidence-base to inform practice remains limited. The findings from this review suggest that a common approach, rather than a distinct intervention for chronic pain, depression, or substance-use disorders, is indicated and that best care can be provided within the context of a coordinated, interdisciplinary, and patient-centered primary care team.