Computed tomography (CT) for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common. Evidence suggests that 1 in 1,200 children undergoing CT will die of malignancy from radiation exposure. Presently, there is no protocol for surveying children with mild TBI; repeat CT (rCT) is often performed. We hypothesized that rCT could be avoided. Outcomes of similar patients who underwent rCT were compared with those of patients followed by clinical examination alone.
An 8-year retrospective review was performed of patients admitted to a Level I pediatric trauma center with TBI, CT evidence of TBI, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 14 to 15. There were two groups, those who underwent rCT (rCT+) and those who did not (rCT−). Data included age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), mechanism of injury, type of TBI, and outcome. Patients with coagulopathies, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, developmental disabilities, nonaccidental trauma, concomitant injuries, or medical problems resulting in intubation or sedation not attributed to TBI were excluded.
Of 391 patients admitted with TBI, 120 were included in the study. A total of 106 patients were rCT+, and 14 were rCT−. rCT+ children were older (mean, 98.7 ± 7.3 vs. 35.3 ± 11.5 months; p = 0.0025) and more likely to have epidural hematoma (EDH) (100% rCT with EDH vs. 76% rCT all other TBI, p = 0.044). Mechanism of injury and mean ISS (15.2 ± 0.6 vs. 13.0 ± 1.1, p = 0.195) were not different between the groups. There were no worsening neurologic symptoms or need for surgery in rCT− children. rCT identified seven patients (6.6%) with CT progression of their injury. Five had an EDH, and two had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two children with EDH underwent operation.
Our study indicates that routine rCT without evidence of clinical deterioration is not indicated in children with admission GCS score of 14 to 15 and TBI on CT scan. Children with EDH seem to have a higher potential for progression, and rCT seems to be indicated in this subgroup.
Level of evidence
Therapeutic study, level IV.