Indications for surgical resection for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been very limited. Because early-stage SCLC is a rare presentation of lung cancer, studies comparing surgical resection among a large number of patients are unlikely to be conducted. This study reports the most recent surgical outcomes of a large number of SCLC patients who underwent surgery in 2004. Methods: In 2010, the Japanese Joint Committee of Lung Cancer Registry performed a nationwide retrospective registry study regarding the prognosis and clinicopathologic profiles of 11,663 patients who underwent resection for primary lung cancer in 2004. Of the 11,663 patients, 243 patients with SCLC (2.1%) were included in this study. The registry data of the patients with SCLC were analyzed, and the clinicopathologic profiles and surgical outcomes of the patients were evaluated. Results: The 5-year survival rate for all cases (n = 243, 213 males, mean age 68.2 years) was 52.6%. The 5-year survival rates by c-stage and p-stage were as follows: IA, 64.3% (n = 132) and 72.3% (n = 93); IB, 45.7% (n = 36) and 61.1% (n = 51); IIA, 50.5% (n =25); and 44.8% (n = 27); IIB, 33.3% (n = 10) and 40.3% (n = 17); IIIA, 30.5% (n = 30) and 23.4% (n = 45); and IV, 0% (n = 7) and 0% (n = 9), respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that the significant prognostic factors were age, gender, c-stage, and surgical curability. A kappa value was moderate conformity between c-stage and p-stage in all cases. Conclusions: Surgical resection in selected patients with early-stage SCLC, especially stage I, had favorable results.