Skip Navigation LinksHome > December 2013 - Volume 8 - Issue 12 > Contributions of KRAS and RAL in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer...
Journal of Thoracic Oncology:
doi: 10.1097/JTO.0000000000000007
Original Articles

Contributions of KRAS and RAL in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Growth and Progression

Guin, Sunny PhD*†; Ru, Yuanbin PhD*†; Wynes, Murry W. PhD; Mishra, Rangnath PhD§; Lu, Xian MS; Owens, Charles MS*†; Barόn, Anna E. PhD; Vasu, Vihas T. PhD§; Hirsch, Fred R. MD, PhD¶‡#; Kern, Jeffrey A. MD¶§; Theodorescu, Dan MD, PhD*†¶

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Abstract

Introduction:

KRAS mutations are poor prognostic markers for patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RALA and RALB GTPases lie downstream of RAS and are implicated in RAS-mediated tumorigenesis. However, their biological or prognostic role in the context of KRAS mutation in NSCLC is unclear.

Methods:

Using expression analysis of human tumors and a panel of cell lines coupled with functional in vivo and in vitro experiments, we evaluated the prognostic and functional importance of RAL in NSCLC and their relationship to KRAS expression and mutation.

Results:

Immunohistochemical (N = 189) and transcriptomic (N = 337) analyses of NSCLC patients revealed high RALA and RALB expression was associated with poor survival. In a panel of 14 human NSCLC cell lines, RALA and RALB had higher expression in KRAS mutant cell lines whereas RALA but not RALB activity was higher in KRAS mutant cell lines. Depletion of RAL paralogs identified cell lines that are dependent on RAL expression for proliferation and anchorage independent growth. Overall, growth of NSCLC cell lines that carry a glycine to cystine KRAS mutation were more sensitive to RAL depletion than those with wild-type KRAS. The use of gene expression and outcome data from 337 human tumors in RAL-KRAS interaction analysis revealed that KRAS and RAL paralog expression jointly impact patient prognosis.

Conclusion:

RAL GTPase expression carries important additional prognostic information to KRAS status in NSCLC patients. Simultaneously targeting RAL may provide a novel therapeutic approach in NSCLC patients harboring glycine to cystine KRAS mutations.

Copyright © 2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

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