Study Design: A retrospective review of pathologic vertebral fractures related to multiple myeloma.
Objective: To report the functional status and height restoration of 32 patients treated with kyphoplasty for multiple myeloma-related vertebral compression fractures.
Summary of Background Data: Multiple myeloma can cause significant bony resorption, and vertebral involvement is extremely common. Compression fractures due to myelomatous vertebral metastases result in significant pain and can lead to kyphosis and sagittal imbalance. Nonoperative treatment can result in deformity and continued pain, and large surgical procedures have significant morbidity. Percutaneous cement augmentation (kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty) is a minimally invasive technique that can improve pain in these patients. Kyphoplasty also has the potential to provide mild deformity correction in addition to fracture stabilization.
Methods: Study participants were patients with biopsy-proven multiple myeloma presenting with compression fracture treated with kyphoplasty. Data were compiled from patient charts and preoperative and postoperative radiographs. Patient self-reported functional status were obtained through the use of the Oswestry Disability Index. The degree of vertebral body collapse and deformity was evaluated using the method of Genant and analyzed using paired Student t test.
Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent kyphoplasty at a total of 76 levels for myelomatous vertebral compression fractures were identified. Sixteen fractures were at the thoracolumbar junction. The mean age was 64.3 years. The average Genant grade for the involved levels improved from 1.9 preoperative to 1.53 postoperative, which was statistically significant (P<0.0001). The postoperative Oswestry Disability Index score was obtained at a mean of 24 months, with a mean of 29.6%. Complications occurred in 12 (37.5%) patients, all consisting of minimal intraoperative cement extravasation without clinical sequelae. No changes in the neurological status were observed. The average hospital stay was 1.34 days postprocedure.
Conclusion: Kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures due to multiple myeloma is a safe and effective procedure that can lead to pain relief and vertebral height restoration.