You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you...

If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in

Reading Development and Impairment: Behavioral, Social, and Neurobiological Factors


Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics:
Basic Science Advances

ABSTRACT. What are the cognitive and neurobiological building blocks necessary for children to acquire literacy, a skill that is crucial for academic and life achievement? In this review we discuss the behavioral and neurobiological evidence concerning the bases of reading development and impairment. The means by which reading achievement may be influenced by the background and experiences that a child brings to the classroom are discussed. Finally, we review a series of experimental studies that have examined the cognitive and neurobiological response prior to and following reading intervention in struggling readers. The importance of appropriate control groups is stressed, as well as the ultimate goal of designing reading interventions that target individual needs.

Author Information

Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York

Address for reprints: Kimberly G. Noble, Ph.D., 1300 York Ave., Box 140, New York, NY 10021; e-mail:

© 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.