This video describes a study that assesses the relationship between autism-related health and educational service use and severity in a national survey of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study found that although rates of service use were generally highest among children with severe ASD, non-school-based therapy and behavioral interventions were only used by about half of children with severe ASD, and about 1 in 4 children with mild ASD were using none of the therapies asked about. Study findings suggest that many children with ASD are likely not getting all of the therapy services they need, across all levels of severity.
This video is a brief summary of the paper, “Neurocognitive correlates of ADHD symptoms in children born at extremely low gestational age”. Compared to children born near term, those born extremely preterm are at much higher risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using the data from the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn study (ELGAN), we examined the neurocognitive correlates of ADHD symptoms in ELGANs at 10 years of age. Findings indicate that among children born extremely preterm, those with ADHD symptoms are more likely than others to have global neurocognitive impairment as well as deficits in executive functioning skills and poor academic achievement.
This video provides a brief summary of the study "Access to Developmental Pediatrics Evaluations for At-risk Children ". Using a "mystery shopper" approach Dr. Jimenez and colleagues identified a national wait time estimate for developmental pediatrics appointments and compared experience and wait times when calls were made in English versus Spanish.
This video is a brief summary of the study, "The Brief Early Childhood Screening Assessment: Preliminary Validity in Pediatric Primary Care". It describes the importance of early identification of behavioral and emotional problems in young children, and highlights the development and validation of the Brief ECSA which is a screening instrument used to identify these problems.
Data from the 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) suggests that the small number of children with ADHD who continue take stimulant medications as adults may not experience meaningful relief of their ADHD symptoms from use of the medications as adults. On the other hand, those who did continue to the use medications were on average 2 cm shorter than their un-medicated peers. The authors discuss the implications of their findings and a number of key question left unanswered: Why did the medications lose their effectiveness? Was it something about the process of ADHD? or something about the adults that made them continue medications? What is it about adult ADHD that leads to the persistent functional impairment? What are the effective treatment approaches then? In addition to medication? In childhood? For adults? Medscape
This video published on TED Ed lessons gives a brief summary of the neuroscience behind practice and how it improves our abilities. It also provides some basic, evidence-based, tips on how to make practice more effective. The first tip? Minimize distractions. Put away that media device!
In a recent article published in the journal Nature, researchers participating in the Infant Brain Imaging Study (IBIS) Network analyzed longitudinal data of high-risk infants diagnosed with autism at 24 months and compared them to data in high-risk and low risk infants without autism at 24 months. Data included behavioral measures of autism symptoms and social communication (ADOS and CSBS) and high-resolution brain MRI measures of total brain volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness at ages 6, 12, and 24 months. Using a deep-learning algorithm arising from the data, the group was able to predict which infants would develop autism at 24 months based on their pattern of cortical surface area change between 6-12 months of age. Hyperexpansion of the cortical surface, particularly in those areas linked to processing of sensory information (biltateral middle occipital gyri, right cuneus, right ligual gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus) between 6-12 months of age and brain overgrowth (as measured by total brain volume) between 12-24 months both correlated with ASD diagnosis, autism symptoms severity, and social communication deficits at 24 months. Neuroscience News
Here is an interesting editorial from Spectrum News that reviews some of the struggles of past drug trials in autism and some of the current efforts to improve on those barriers. Also posted on The Atlantic.
Researchers at the MIND Institute, using a population drawn from their infant sibling study, examined longitudinal patterns of response to name from 6-24 months of age. The response to name task was administered as part of the ADOS at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age in 156 infant siblings at high and low risk of ASD. Beginning at 9 months of age, children who were eventually diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (by 36 months) were more likely to fail to orient to their name, especially on more than one assessment during the time period between 12- and 24-months of age. Article | Pubmed
In an article published in Academic Pediatrics, researchers at Oregon Health & Science University surveyed parents parents of preschool and school-aged children regarding their knowledge and use of time-out for management of childhood misbehavior. While over 3/4 of parents surveyed reported using time-out (most often in response to aggression or destructive behavior), nearly 85% of parents reported at least one element that could interfere with effectiveness. The most common types of problematic use reported were "excesses of stimulation"; e.g. repeated warnings before time-out, talking to the child during time-out, allow them access to a distractor during time-out, etc. The strongest predictor of perceived ineffectiveness was the child leaving time-out without permission. The authors suggest a number of key teaching points for physicians and stress the importance of concurrent positive parenting strategies. AAP News