Skip Navigation LinksHome > April 2011 - Volume 23 - Issue 2 > JPO SELF-ASSESSMENT EXAMINATION
JPO Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics:
doi: 10.1097/JPO.0b013e318217e221
Self-Assessment Examination


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1. Read the article on pages 52–57.

2. Complete the examination.

3. Submit your completed examination to the AAOP per the directions on the next page.

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The following questions require short answers only; you do not have to use complete sentences. All questions refer to the article, “Design and Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) Proposed to Influence Muscle Tone: A Review” by Toshiki Kobayashi, PhD, Aaron K. I. Leung, PhD, Stephen W. Hutchins, PhD.

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Quiz – Design and Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) Proposed to Influence Muscle Tone: A Review, Toshiki Kobayashi, PhD, Aaron K. I. Leung, PhD, Stephen W. Hutchins, PhD.

1. True or false __________Different AFO designs exist, supporting evidence to demonstrate that these AFOs can actually reduce or inhibit spastic muscle tone.

2. [Select the correct response.] __________is one of the most common neurological impairments which may occur following an upper motor neuron lesion.

A. Stroke

B. Spasticity

C. Cerebral palsy

D. Multiple sclerosis

3. [Select the correct response.] Which of the following is not a type of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designed and proposed to influence muscle tone.

A. Tone-preventing

B. Dynamic

C. Tone-inhibiting

D. Tone-reducing

4. True or false __________Neurophysiological AFOs were one type of AFO with tone-influencing designs.

5. [Select the correct response.] The addition of __________material that extended from under the toes to a more proximal position underneath the metatarsophalangeal joints was thought to help prevent plantar grasping.

A. Polyurethane

B. Plastic

C. Felt

D. Moleskin

6. [Select the correct response.] The ankle joint was kept at __________degrees with the subtalar joint in a __________position in most AFO designs.

A. 45...negative

B. 90...neutral

C. 60...positive

7. True or false __________Loading on the heel was relieved in the majority of studies, but was augmented in one particular study.

8. True or false __________No conclusive neurophysiological effects were reported when walking with the AFOs.

9. [Select the correct response.] Studies in which comparisons with other types of AFOs were performed __________conclusive evidence that AFOs with tone-influencing designs were superior to others.

A. Showed

B. Did not show

10. [Select the correct response.] The AFOs have __________effect on gait, posture and EMG data in patients with spasticity.

A. No

B. Positive

C. Negligible

D. Negative

11. True or false __________ It was not conclusive whether the AFOs could actually reduce or inhibit muscle tone.

12. True or false __________Based on the strong results of this literature review, it was concluded that the efficacy of the AFOs with tone-influencing designs (i.e., in reducing or inhibiting muscle tone) has been sufficiently proven.

Complete the JPO Self-Assessment Examination on the previous page and score a minimum of 75 percent to earn two PCE credits. Send the completed examination and payment in U.S. currency ($20/AAOP members, $50 nonmembers) to: AAOP, 1331 H Street, NW, Suite 501, Washington, DC 20005. The examination must be received by the AAOP within 3 years of the publication date for credit to be awarded.

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