We performed a systematic review of published studies that evaluated the potential risk factors and outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized children. A total of 761 VTE patients from six published studies were identified. The mean prevalence of VTE in children admitted to the hospital was 9.7/10 000 admissions. The presence of a central venous catheter was found to be the single most important predisposing cause of VTE, with a pooled percentage of 29%. Infection was the second most common cause of the disease (20%). Pulmonary embolism occurred in 15% (113/745) of the patients. The overall recurrence rate of VTE was 16% (74/464) and the mortality rate was 8% (59/704). Although uncommon, orthopedic surgeons need to be aware of the unique risk factors for VTE among pediatric inpatients. Hospitalized children and adolescents with known risk factors for VTE should be considered candidates for VTE screening or prophylaxis.