Perinatal nursing and neonatal nursing both have a scientific base upon which to base care, and great strides have been made in translating research into practice in both of these specialties. However, barriers still exist for nurses in implementing evidence-based perinatal and neonatal care. Patient, provider, and systems factors that influence how evidence is translated into practice are discussed. Suggestions for how to implement practice change when evidence is inadequate are also discussed. Finally, examples of how the scientific base for both perinatal nursing and neonatal nursing can be more efficiently implemented are outlined on the basis of the state of implementation science in the United States today.