Although great strides have been made in the improvement of outcome for newly diagnosed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia because of refinements in risk stratification and selective intensification of therapy, the prognosis for relapsed leukemia has lagged behind significantly. Understanding the underlying biological pathways responsible for drug resistance is essential to develop novel approaches for the prevention of recurrence and treatment of relapsed disease. High throughput genomic technologies have the potential to revolutionize cancer care in this era of personalized medicine. Using such advanced technologies, we and others have shown that a diverse assortment of cooperative genetic and epigenetic events drive the resistant phenotype. Herein, we summarize results using a variety of genomic technologies to highlight the power of this methodology in providing insight into the biological mechanisms that impart resistant disease.