Children with cancer receiving identical treatment differ in their experience of infection, suggesting that variations in immunity may influence susceptibility to infection. Studies of the influence of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an important component of the innate immune system, in children with febrile neutropenia (FN) have yielded conflicting results. We examined the role of MBL in infection susceptibility in the largest cohort of children with cancer reported to date. MBL levels were measured and genotyping performed on children (≤16 y) receiving chemotherapy for cancer in London, UK. Clinical data from FN episodes were recorded prospectively. MBL status was assessed in 269 children; 513 episodes of FN were captured from 211 patients. Patients with MBL2 polymorphisms experienced more FN episodes than wildtype genotype (median 2 vs. 1, respectively; P=0.074) and more episodes with documented infection (P=0.045). Patients experiencing multiple FN episodes had lower MBL levels (P=0.036). MBL genotype influenced duration of episode in some groups: high-risk MBL-deficient patients spent up to 5 nights longer/episode in hospital than equivalent wildtypes. These results indicate that MBL deficiency influences both susceptibility to and outcome of FN episodes and may be most important in those patients at higher risk of complications of FN.