Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates the metabolism of folate and methionine, essential components of DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene have been associated with susceptibility to some types of cancer. We investigated a possible association of MTHFR polymorphisms (677C>T and 1298A>C) and increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 78 affected children. The frequencies of both MTHFR 677 genotypes and alleles were significantly different between patients and controls. A significant association between CT/TT individuals and reduced risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was found. The odds ratios were 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 032-0.89) and 0.30 (95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.81). Polymorphism 1298 did not show statistical difference between patients and controls.