Geneticists estimate that 5% to 10% of all cancers diagnosed in the pediatric age range occur in children born with a genetic mutation that directly increases their lifetime risk for neoplasia. However, despite the fact that only a fraction of cancers in children occur as a result of an identified inherited predisposition, characterizing genetic mutations responsible for increased cancer risk in such syndromes has resulted in a profound understanding of relevant molecular pathways involved in carcinogenesis and/or resistance to neoplasia. Importantly, because most cancer predisposition syndromes result in an increased risk of a small number of defined malignancies, personalized prophylactic surveillance and preventive measures can be implemented in affected patients. Lastly, many of the same genetic targets identified from cancer-prone families are mechanistically involved in the majority of sporadic cancers in adults and children, thereby underscoring the clinical relevance of knowledge gained from these defined syndromes and introducing novel therapeutic opportunities to the broader oncologic community. This review highlights the clinical and genetic features of many of the known constitutional genetic syndromes that predispose to malignancy in children and young adults.