Sustained Remission Achieved With ATRA and Chemotherapy in Second Relapse of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Down SyndromeGhosh, Indranil MD*; Kumar, Lalit DM*; Seth, Rachna DNB†; Thavraj, Vasantha MD†Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: August 2009 - Volume 31 - Issue 8 - p 539-540 doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181979494 Original Articles Abstract Author Information Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing acute leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia predominates among DS children below 4 years of age but acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has rarely been reported in DS. Acute myeloid leukemia in DS is extremely sensitive to treatment but the optimum treatment of de novo or relapsed APL in DS is not known. We describe a child with DS and APL, who despite having a multiply relapsing course, achieved a third remission with ATRA and chemotherapy, which is sustained with maintenance therapy. A brief review of literature is also presented. *Department of Medical Oncology, Dr B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital †Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Reprints: Lalit Kumar, DM, Department of Medical Oncology, Dr B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India (e-mail: email@example.com). Received for publication September 14, 2008; accepted November 6, 2008 © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.