Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing acute leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia predominates among DS children below 4 years of age but acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has rarely been reported in DS. Acute myeloid leukemia in DS is extremely sensitive to treatment but the optimum treatment of de novo or relapsed APL in DS is not known. We describe a child with DS and APL, who despite having a multiply relapsing course, achieved a third remission with ATRA and chemotherapy, which is sustained with maintenance therapy. A brief review of literature is also presented.
*Department of Medical Oncology, Dr B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital
†Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Reprints: Lalit Kumar, DM, Department of Medical Oncology, Dr B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India (e-mail: email@example.com).
Received for publication September 14, 2008; accepted November 6, 2008