Identification of iron deficiency (ID) is essential to initiate early treatment to prevent long-term systemic complications of ID anemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of the parameter reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) compared with other laboratory parameters in the assessment of ID in a pediatric population. Blood samples were obtained for 237 children who received routine pediatric care visits in a primary care clinic (mean age: 63.7 mo; male:female ratio: 1.08:1). A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified CHr as the most accurate marker independently associated to ID. A CHr cutoff value of 25 pg (sensitivity: 94%; specificity: 80%) proved an optimal performance predicting ID. Therefore, we conclude that the hematologic parameter CHr constitutes a valuable screening tool for the identification of ID with or without anemia in childhood.