Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas (Dr Quast); and Department of Health Services Administration, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park (Dr Mortensen).
Correspondence: Troy Quast, PhD, Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University, Box 2056, Huntsville, TX 77341 ( firstname.lastname@example.org).
This project has been approved by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Board (Data Use Agreement no. 20696).
Prof Mortensen gratefully acknowledges support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Center for Child Health and Human Development grant R24-HD041041, Maryland Population Research Center. Prof Quast gratefully acknowledges financial assistance from a Faculty Research Grant from Sam Houston State University.
The authors thank Gerri Barosso of ResDAC (a contractor for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, contract no. HHSM-500-2005-00027I) and Dennis Roberts with Health Management Associates for expert assistance with the Medicaid MAX claims data.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.