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Economic Effects of Clean Indoor Air Policies on Bar and Restaurant Employment in Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota

Klein, Elizabeth G. PhD, MPH; Forster, Jean L. PhD, MPH; Erickson, Darin J. PhD; Lytle, Leslie A. PhD, RD; Schillo, Barbara PhD

Journal of Public Health Management & Practice:
doi: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181c60ea9
Article
Abstract

Objectives: Clean indoor air (CIA) policies have been adopted by communities across the United States and internationally to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Concerns have been raised that banning smoking in workplaces, particularly in bars and restaurants, will result in severe, negative economic effects. Although objective studies have consistently found no significant economic effects from CIA policies, the concerns persist that CIA policies will negatively affect hospitality businesses.

Methods: Employment in bars and restaurants in Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota, was independently evaluated over a five-year period during which CIA policies were established in each city. An interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the short-, intermediate, and longer-term economic effects of the local CIA policies, accounting for the rest of the hospitality industry.

Results: The CIA polices were associated with an increase of three percent to four percent in employment for restaurants in Minneapolis and St Paul, after accounting for the rest of the hospitality industry. The CIA policies were inconsistent in their association with bar employment. A comprehensive CIA policy in Minneapolis was associated with an increase of five percent to six percent in bar employment, and St Paul had a one percent nonsignificant decrease in bar employment. The CIA policies continue to yield the best protection against workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for bars and restaurant employees and were not associated with large employment changes for the short or longer term in two urban Midwestern cities in the United States.

In Brief

This study describes clean indoor air policies to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

Author Information

Elizabeth G. Klein, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Division of Health Behavior and Health Promotion, Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio.

Jean L. Forster, PhD, MPH, is Professor, Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis.

Darin J. Erickson, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis.

Leslie A. Lytle, PhD, RD, is Professor, Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis.

Barbara Schillo, PhD, is Vice President, ClearWay Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Corresponding Author: Elizabeth G. Klein, PhD, MPH, Division of Health Behavior & Health Promotion, Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, OH 43210 (eklein@cph.osu.edu).

This work was supported by grant RC-2006-0047 from the ClearWay Minnesota research program. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of ClearWay Minnesota.

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.