The purpose of this study was to assess the alignment of state and local health department financing with the 10 essential public health service (10EPHS) categories and National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS). To determine this, we collected primary data from the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) for fiscal year 2005–2006 and compared it with secondary data collected in the same year through NPHPS survey instruments. A structured interview technique was used to collect primary budget data from each program office at the FDOH and assign each program budget to 10EPHS categories. Local county health department (CHD) expenditures were assessed through an interview with the director and budget chief of one small, medium, and large CHD, and results were then extrapolated for other local CHDs. It was possible for almost 98 percent of the FDOH budget to be allocated into the 10EPHS categories. A majority of resources (68.7%) were used for individual healthcare services, category 7b (assuring provision of services) and category 7a (linking people to needed services). No direct correlation was found between the level of funding by 10EPHS category and the performance standards scores at state or local levels. Public health continues to utilize a majority of its available resources for individual healthcare services, despite increasing requests for improved population-based programs.