The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) is the national organization representing local health departments. NACCHO supports efforts that protect and improve the health of all people and all communities by promoting national policy, developing resources and programs, seeking health equity, and supporting effective local public health practice and systems.
The article discusses about public health and immunization mandates and provides strategies on how to make decisions about vaccine mandates judiciously and within a sphere of ethics specific to public health practice.
James Ransom, MPH, is Senior Analyst, Immunization and Infectious Disease Policy, National Association of County and City Health Officials, Washington, DC.
Geoffrey R. Swain, MD, MPH, is Chief Medical Officer and Medical Director, City of Milwaukee Health Department, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health.
Jeffrey S. Duchin, MD, FACP, FIDSA, is Chief, Communicable Disease Epidemiology & Immunization Section, Public Health—Seattle & King County, Seattle, Washington.
Corresponding Author: James Ransom, MPH, Immunization and Infectious Disease Policy, National Association of County and City Health Officials, 1100 17th St NW, Washington, DC 20036.