While evidence Reviews inform practice and policy guidelines, the gap between guidelines and implementation may be growing. We place dissemination and implementation Research in the context of other changes needed to drive Research into practice. Multilevel approaches to Research and dissemination are needed as are metrics to inform academic appointment and promotions. Moving beyond funding that stops and starts with grant cycles is a key issue from the community perspective to ensure continuity and improved health. Transdisciplinary approaches that cut across disciplinary boundaries to develop shared conceptual frameworks may help speed the integration of Research with practice. Identifying and implementing structural changes to develop and support transdisciplinary teams may further facilitate this process. Changes in the approaches used to structure and implement scientific advances into practice will help achieve the enormous potential to advance the health of the population.