Skip Navigation LinksHome > February 2011 - Volume 52 - Issue 2 > Guidance for Clinical Trials for Children and Adolescents Wi...
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition:
doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181f6f09c
Clinical Guideline

Guidance for Clinical Trials for Children and Adolescents With Chronic Hepatitis C

Wirth, Stefan*; Kelly, Deirdre; Sokal, Etienne; Socha, Piotr§; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina||; Dhawan, Anil||; Lacaille, Florence; Raymond, Agnès Saint#; Olivier, Sophie#; Taminiau, Jan#

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

*Clinic for Children and Adolescence, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Witten-Herdecke-University, Germany

The Liver Unit, Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK

Service de Hépatologie Pédiatrique, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc

§Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Immunology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland

||King's College London School at King's College Hospital, London, UK

Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades Service de Gastroentérologie Pédiatrique, Paris, France

#European Medicines Agency, London, UK.

Received 22 May, 2010

Accepted 20 July, 2010

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Prof Dr Stefan Wirth, Clinic for Children and Adolescence, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Witten-Herdecke-University, Heusnerstr. 40, D-42283 Wuppertal, Germany (e-mail: stefan.wirth@helios-kliniken.de).

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

The views expressed in this article are the personal views of the authors and should not be understood or quoted as being made on behalf of or reflecting the position of the EMA or one of its committees or working parties.

This Guidance is the result of a consensus meeting of a working group in November 2009 consisting of members and experts of the ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee and the EMA: Stefan Wirth, Deirdre Kelly, Etienne Sokal, Piotr Socha, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Anil Dhawan, and Florence Lacaille for ESPGHAN; Agnès Saint Raymond, Sophie Olivier, and Jan Taminiau for EMA.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Most children with chronic hepatitis C are infected vertically, have a low natural seroconversion rate, and carry a lifetime risk of cirrhosis and cancer. Affected children are usually asymptomatic, and histological findings are mild with a low risk of progression, although 5% develop significant liver disease in childhood.

The use of combination treatment with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin has changed the outcome and prognosis for this disease, with approximately 60% of children achieving sustained viral clearance. Combination therapy is not ideal for children because pegylated interferon is administered subcutaneously, impairs growth velocity, and both interferon and ribavirin have significant adverse effects that affect compliance. In addition, approximately 50% of children infected with genotype 1 do not respond to therapy. Thus, additional treatment options are required including improvement in dosing, reduction in the length of treatment, and evaluation of new drugs, such as protease inhibitors, which could be more effective for patients infected with genotype 1.

The primary goal of treatment is to eradicate the infection. The future clinical trial design should ensure that any new drugs demonstrate noninferiority to the present standard regimen in both children and adults. The measure for documenting substantial improvement above present therapy should be increased viral clearance rate or the same clearance rate, with a shorter duration of treatment and/or fewer adverse effects. We do not believe there is any need for a placebo arm because approved therapy is available and new treatments can be compared with present therapy.

Safety measures should include the standard recommended laboratory investigations, growth parameters, quality-of-life or psychological measures, and a requirement for long-term follow-up for up to 5 years.

Back to Top | Article Outline

BACKGROUND

In adults, treatment guidelines for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are based on a large number of published natural history studies and randomized controlled trials. There are fewer data available regarding the epidemiology, spontaneous course, and treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents. Initially, most guidelines recommended children to be managed and treated in a similar way as adults, although recent data suggest that this may no longer be appropriate. Some experts recommend postponing treatment until adulthood because children are asymptomatic and have mild liver disease. Recently, several published open-label treatment trials have demonstrated significant efficacy and safety of HCV infection therapy in children and adolescents using either interferon-α 2b or peginterferon-α 2b in combination with ribavirin, which resulted in official approval of this treatment regimen by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) (1–5). In addition, there is now considerable experience with peginterferon-α 2a in combination with ribavirin in children (6,7). As in adults, sustained viral response (SVR) depends on genotype. Patients infected with genotype 2 and 3 respond significantly better than those with genotype 1 or 4 who only have response rates of 50% (5,7). Therefore, half of the treated patients remain chronic virus carriers with a risk of progressive liver disease (8,9), so there are compelling reasons to improve the present treatment options.

Back to Top | Article Outline

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SPONTANEOUS VIRAL CLEARANCE

The prevalence of HCV infection in children in developed countries ranges between 0.1% and 0.4% (10–12). During the last 10 years the predominant mode of viral hepatitis C transmission has become vertical infection. In developed countries, contamination through transfusion or health care is exceedingly rare, but it may remain frequent in developing countries. The rate of perinatal transmission from an infected mother to her child ranges from 2% to 5% and is now the nearly exclusive mode of infection in Western countries (13,14). In the United Kingdom the prevalence of HCV infection in pregnant women was 0.16% (10). In Scotland the prevalence ranged between 0.29% and 0.4% depending on age (15). From France a 0.53% HCV infection RNA prevalence of the young population was reported (16). Seroprevalence of antibody to HCV infection in the United States was 0.4% (17). Given a perinatal transmission rate of approximately 4% in HCV infection, RNA-positive mothers, and an annual birth rate of 4.4 million newborns in North America and 5 million in Europe, there could be an estimated 530 to 600 new unavoidable infections annually in infants for these industrialized regions. In cases of vertical infection, the chronicity rate is extremely high (18). Spontaneous viral clearance after HCV infection in children seems higher in parenterally infected individuals and may reach 35% to 45% up to adolescence (19,20). However, viral clearance in vertically infected children seems to be dependent on the genotype and was found to range from 2.4% to 25% (13,21,22). In contrast, children infected with genotype 3 had a higher spontaneous clearance rate than those infected with genotype 1. Beyond age 4 years spontaneous viral clearance became unlikely (22).

Back to Top | Article Outline

CHRONIC HCV INFECTION

It is well documented that HCV infection in children is clinically asymptomatic. Histological findings are usually mild and the risk of severe complications is low. Nevertheless, despite the favourable prognosis during the first and second decades of life, approximately 4% to 6% of children have evidence of advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis (8,23). Large liver transplantation units have reported on children who needed liver transplantation due to progressive HCV infection (24). In a lifetime, the risk of developing cirrhosis is about 20%, which is influenced by alcohol consumption, whereas the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is based on developing cirrhosis at 2% to 5% (25). However, these data are from adults and there is no valid information about the long-term course of vertically infected children. A recent study in pediatric patients cured of malignancy with chronic hepatitis C documented liver cirrhosis in 5% after 3 decades of observation (26).

Back to Top | Article Outline

TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

Initially, treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents was based on an α-interferon monotherapy with multiple dosing regimen yielding an SVR rate from 0% to 76% (27). Nineteen studies using α-interferon have been published between 1992 and 2003 (28–46). With increasing experience α-interferon monotherapy (injections thrice weekly) showed a rather poor response, and ribavirin was added. Six studies were published between 2000 and 2005 and demonstrated an SVR from 27% to 64% (1,3,45,47–49). The stratification according to genotypes revealed a good response (>80%) in patients with genotype 2 and 3 and an SVR of approximately 36% to 53% in those with genotype 1. FDA and EMA approved interferon-α 2b (3 Mio U, thrice per week) in combination with ribavirin (15 mg · kg−1 · day−1).

Peginterferon in combination with ribavirin became the standard of care for adults with chronic hepatitis C. Advantages were better SVR, reduced injection frequency to once per week, and a better adverse effect profile. Subsequently, the therapy was evaluated in children and adolescents and the results of 6 trials have been reported (2,4–7,50). SVR in patients with genotype 1 from 5 trials with >30 patients ranged from 44% to 59%. SVR in children with genotype 2 and 3 was >90%. Three trials used peginterferon-α 2b, and 2 used peginterferon-α 2a. The level of aminotransferases or histological findings by liver biopsy did not correlate with SVR. In 1 study, 32% of children with genotype 1 and high viral load (>600,000 U/L) and 73% with low viral load (<600,000 U/L) achieved SVR (5).

Peginterferon-α 2b (60 μg · m−2 · week−1) and ribavirin (15 mg · kg−1 · day−1) were approved by the FDA (2008) and the EMA (2009). Recommendations are that patients with genotype 1 and 4 should be treated for 48 weeks, with treatment discontinued at 6 months if there has been no viral response. Patients with genotype 2 and 3 should be treated for 24 weeks. The majority of treated children and adolescents will tolerate peginterferon and ribavirin well. Most adverse events were mild to moderate, although dose reductions of both drugs were required; the rates of discontinuation were low in all published trials. Severe psychiatric adverse effects were rare in prepubertal individuals, but thyroid dysfunction and transient growth impairment were reported (1,5). Follow-up studies to evaluate long-term sequelae are in progress.

In summary, despite considerable progress in the treatment of children with chronic hepatitis C, in approximately half of the patients with genotype 1, which represents the vast majority of infected individuals, treatment remains unsuccessful. The need for subcutaneous administration of pegylated interferon and the range of significant adverse effects with both interferon and ribavirin mean that further improvement in terms of dosing, reducing the length of treatment, and evaluating new drugs such as protease inhibitors is required.

Back to Top | Article Outline

RATIONALE FOR FURTHER CLINICAL TRIALS FOR HEPATITIS C IN CHILDREN

Present treatment is demanding with respect to parenteral administration, the range of adverse effects, and patients' compliance, and its efficacy against genotype 1 is suboptimal.

Eradication of childhood HCV infection is desirable because children with chronic hepatitis C carry a lifetime risk of cirrhosis and cancer. The risk is probably not linear and may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. However, affected children further expand the pool of hepatitis C carriers in the population and hence participate in viral transmission. Importantly, children may feel stigmatized by their friends and develop serious psychological problems, resulting in reduced quality of life. In addition, educational problems may rise with the risk of restricting their career choices by the infection, especially in the health field.

Moreover, therapy may be more efficient in children due to the general absence of comorbidities or intoxications. The present standard of care regimens using peginterferon in combination with ribavirin are long, relatively toxic, and expensive. New protocols, either shorter or with different drugs, are thus desirable.

Back to Top | Article Outline

AIMS AND CRITERIA FOR TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS C IN CHILDREN

The primary goal of treatment is to eradicate the infection to prevent late complications. Hence, the aim is not the treatment of an ongoing liver disease, but the prevention of a future one. All children with chronic hepatitis C with active infection with a measurable level of HCV-RNA should be considered for treatment. Although neither the level of aminotransferases nor of HCV-RNA predicts the long-term outcome, these criteria should be included in the analysis of the results because SVR may be better in individuals with genotype 1 who have a lower viral load (5).

Histology: We do not feel that liver histology is a useful entry criterion because children generally do not have severe lesions. However, because steatosis is a prognostic factor for treatment response in adults and is partly related to HCV infection itself as well as to body weight, it would be desirable to perform a liver biopsy at the beginning of a trial as a baseline and to include measures of fibrosis/steatosis in the analysis of the results (51,52).

Endpoints: The primary endpoint should be SVR, which is defined as persistent HCV-RNA loss more than 6 months after cessation of treatment, anticipating eradication of the chronic HCV infection. A secondary endpoint should be normalization of aminotransferases.

Back to Top | Article Outline

DESIGN OF CLINICAL TRIALS

Study Drugs

The drug to be tested should have demonstrated noninferiority to the present standard treatment in adults and children (pegylated interferon-α in combination with ribavirin). We do not feel that there is a need for a placebo arm because approved effective therapy for children and adolescents is available and new treatments could be compared with present therapy. The test drug could be used in triple combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin or as monotherapy.

New treatment options should focus primarily on patients infected with genotype 1 because of the relative lack of efficacy of present therapy. Improved efficacy could be evaluated as an increased viral clearance rate (eg, >65%) in those patients. Alternatively, new treatment regimens could achieve the same viral clearance rate, but with a shorter duration of treatment or with less adverse effects.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Inclusion Criteria

All of the children with chronic hepatitis C, defined as persistence of viral replication with positive HCV-RNA for more than 6 months, are eligible independent of the mode of transmission and the level of aminotransferases before treatment. Treatment is not indicated before age 3 years because of safety reasons and to allow for the possibility of spontaneous viral clearance. Trial protocols should stratify patients according to genotype 1 and 4 and 2 and 3, respectively. Two age groups (3–10 years and 10–18 years) should be separately documented and analysed. In view of the effect on final height, treatment during rapid growth spurts or puberty should be avoided if possible. Additional factors influencing SVR such as mode of infection; sex; aminotransferase levels; and histolological grading of fibrosis, inflammation, and steatosis (51,52) should be recorded. Female adolescents should be advised to protect against pregnancy.

Children with previous treatment failure could be included 2 years after the end of treatment to allow for delayed seroconversion and/or the effects of the previous medication. Individuals with significant comorbidities interfering with liver function, such as co-infection with HIV, chronic hepatitis B, hepatotoxic treatments, or other liver diseases, should not be treated in clinical trials.

The recommended necessary baseline investigations before treating patients with chronic hepatitis C in a clinical trial are summarized in Table 1. A baseline liver biopsy is recommended, although histological inflammatory activity and fibrosis are likely to be mild, but measures of steatosis may be useful as discussed above. Table 2 demonstrates 2 internationally established scores that could be used to assess fibrosis and inflammation (51,52).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools

Surrogate markers of steatosis such as findings of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, or Fibroscan are not generally available and are not standardized. Thus, for a more reliable analysis of the results it is desirable to have a liver biopsy at the beginning of a clinical trial. Because insulin resistance is also a factor associated with response to treatment in adults, determination of homeostatic model assessment index is useful at the beginning and end of the treatment. Iron load has been related in adults to a more severe disease (53). Therefore, the determination of serum ferritin levels is a meaningful marker for the analysis of results. Because of possible transient growth inhibition of interferons and evaluation of growth parameters including z scores for height and weight, growth velocity needs to be performed regularly. Bone age in children older than 7 years at the beginning and the end of treatment may be a guide to estimated final height.

The recommended investigations and repeat frequency during treatment are shown in Table 3. The decrease of HCV-RNA during 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the initiation of treatment are evaluated and included in the analysis of the results. Patients with persistence of positive HCV-RNA at 6 months, irrespective of genotype, should stop treatment because SVR is unlikely.

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Five-year follow-up after cessation of treatment is recommended and includes the measurement of standard blood tests, liver function tests, and quantitative HCV-RNA at 6 months and then annually to document SVR. Growth and pubertal development should be assessed every 6 months and bone age should be assessed at the end of treatment. Other tests may be necessary depending on the safety profile of each test drug.

Back to Top | Article Outline

CONCLUSIONS

We have summarized the rationale, indications for treatment, baseline investigations, and safety parameters to be considered when designing future clinical trials of chronic viral hepatitis C in children. We hope they will be of value to guide clinicians, the regulatory authorities, and the pharmaceutical industry.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Kelly DA, Haber B, et al. Interferon alfa-2b in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children: efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics. Hepatology 2005; 42:1010–1018.

2. Jara P, Hierro L, de la Vega A, et al. Efficacy and safety of peginterferon-alpha2b and ribavirin combination therapy in children with chronic hepatitis C infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27:142–148.

3. Wirth S, Lang T, Gehring S, et al. Recombinant alfa-interferon plus ribavirin therapy in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002; 36:1280–1284.

4. Wirth S, Pieper-Boustani H, Lang T, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin treatment in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005; 41:1013–1018.

5. Wirth S, Ribes-Koninckx C, Calzado MA, et al. High sustained virologic response rates in children with chronic hepatitis C receiving peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. J Hepatol 2010; 52:501–507.

6. Schwarz KB, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Murray KF, et al. Peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents: final results of the PEDS-C trial hepatology. Hepatology 2008; 48:418A.

7. Sokal EM, Bourgois A, Stephenne X, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in children and adolescents. J Hepatol 2010; 52:827–831.

8. Guido M, Bortolotti F, Leandro G, et al. Fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C acquired in infancy: is it only a matter of time? Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98:660–663.

9. Bortolotti F, Iorio R, Nebbia G, et al. Interferon treatment in children with chronic hepatitis C: long-lasting remission in responders, and risk for disease progression in non-responders. Dig Liver Dis 2005; 37:336–341.

10. Ades AE, Parker S, Walker J, et al. HCV prevalence in pregnant women in the UK. Epidemiol Infect 2000; 125:399–405.

11. Gerner P, Wirth S, Wintermeyer P, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in children admitted to an urban hospital. J Infect 2006; 52:305–308.

12. Hepatitis C virus infection. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pediatrics 1998;101:481–85.

13. Iorio R, Giannattasio A, Sepe A, et al. Chronic hepatitis C in childhood: an 18-year experience. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:1431–1437.

14. Jara P, Resti M, Hierro L, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection in childhood: clinical patterns and evolution in 224 white children. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:275–280.

15. Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg DJ, King M, et al. Hepatitis C virus among childbearing women in Scotland: prevalence, deprivation, and diagnosis. Gut 2004; 53:593–598.

16. Meffre C, Le Strat Y, Delarocque-Astagneau E, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in France in 2004: social factors are important predictors after adjusting for known risk factors. J Med Virol 2010; 82:546–555.

17. Indolfi G, Resti M. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. J Med Virol 2009; 81:836–843.

18. Tovo PA, Pembrey LJ, Newell ML. Persistence rate and progression of vertically acquired hepatitis C infection. European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Infection. J Infect Dis 2000; 181:419–424.

19. Vogt M, Lang T, Frosner G, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of hepatitis C infection in children who underwent cardiac surgery before the implementation of blood-donor screening. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:866–870.

20. Posthouwer D, Fischer K, van Erpecum KJ, et al. The natural history of childhood-acquired hepatitis C infection in patients with inherited bleeding disorders. Transfusion 2006; 46:1360–1366.

21. Resti M, Jara P, Hierro L, et al. Clinical features and progression of perinatally acquired hepatitis C virus infection. J Med Virol 2003; 70:373–377.

22. Bortolotti F, Verucchi G, Camma C, et al. Long-term course of chronic hepatitis C in children: from viral clearance to end-stage liver disease. Gastroenterology 2008; 134:1900–1907.

23. Goodman ZD, Makhlouf HR, Liu L, et al. Pathology of chronic hepatitis C in children: liver biopsy findings in the Peds-C Trial. Hepatology 2008; 47:836–843.

24. Barshes NR, Udell IW, Lee TC, et al. The natural history of hepatitis C virus in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2006; 12:1119–1123.

25. Freeman AJ, Dore GJ, Law MG, et al. Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2001; 34:809–816.

26. Cesaro S, Bortolotti F, Petris MG, et al. An updated follow-up of chronic hepatitis C after three decades of observation in pediatric patients cured of malignancy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010; 55:108–112.

27. Jacobson KR, Murray K, Zellos A, et al. An analysis of published trials of interferon monotherapy in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002; 34:52–58.

28. Bortolotti F, Giacchino R, Vajro P, et al. Recombinant interferon-alfa therapy in children with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1995; 22:1623–1627.

29. Iorio R, Pensati P, Porzio S, et al. Is alpha-interferon treatment useful in children with non-B, non-C chronic hepatitis? J Hepatol 1995; 23:761–762.

30. Clemente MG, Congia M, Lai ME, et al. Effect of iron overload on the response to recombinant interferon-alfa treatment in transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major and chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr 1994; 125:123–128.

31. Czerwionka-Szaflarska M, Chrobot A, Szaflarska-Szczepanik A. Studies of the effectiveness of interferon alpha treatment for chronic hepatitis C in children. Med Sci Monit 2000; 6:964–970.

32. Di Marco V, Lo Iacono O, Capra M, et al. Alpha-Interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C in young patients with homozygous beta-thalassemia. Haematologica 1992; 77:502–506.

33. Fujisawa T, Inui A, Ohkawa T, et al. Response to interferon therapy in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr 1995; 127:660–662.

34. Jonas MM, Ott MJ, Nelson SP, et al. Interferon-alpha treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998; 17:241–246.

35. Ko JS, Choe YH, Kim EJ, et al. Interferon-alpha treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children with hemophilia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32:41–44.

36. Komatsu H, Fujisawa T, Inui A, et al. Efficacy of interferon in treating chronic hepatitis C in children with a history of acute leukemia. Blood 1996; 87:4072–4075.

37. Majda-Stanislawska E, Szaflik I, Omulecka A. Interferon alpha for eradication of HCV and remission of chronic hepatitis in children. Med Sci Monit 2000; 6:1142–1147.

38. Matsuoka S, Mori K, Nakano O, et al. Efficacy of interferons in treating children with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Pediatr 1997; 156:704–708.

39. Mozer-Lisewska I, Sluzewski W, Ali Youseif K, et al. Virus genotype 1b and long-term response to interferon alpha monotherapy in children with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Pediatr 2003; 162:755–759.

40. Nakashima E, Fujisawa T, Kimura A, et al. Efficacy of interferon-alpha treatment in Japanese children with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 18:411–414.

41. Pensati P, Iorio R, Botta S, et al. Low virological response to interferon in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1999; 31:604–611.

42. Ruiz-Moreno M, Rua MJ, Castillo I, et al. Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis C with recombinant interferon-alpha: a pilot study. Hepatology 1992; 16:882–885.

43. Sawada A, Tajiri H, Kozaiwa K, et al. Favorable response to lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1998; 28:184–188.

44. Spiliopoulou I, Repanti M, Katinakis S, et al. Response to interferon alfa-2b therapy in mutitransfused children with beta-thalassemia and chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999; 18:709–715.

45. Suoglu DO, Elkabes B, Sokucu S, et al. Does interferon and ribavirin combination therapy increase the rate of treatment response in children with hepatitis C? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002; 34:199–206.

46. Zwiener RJ, Fielman BA, Cochran C, et al. Interferon-alpha-2b treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children with hemophilia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:906–908.

47. Christensson B, Wiebe T, Akesson A, et al. Interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment of hepatitis C in children with malignancy in remission. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30:585–586.

48. Figlerowicz M, Sluzewski W, Kowala-Piaskowska A, et al. Interferon alpha and ribavirin in the treatment of children with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Pediatr 2004; 163:265–267.

49. Puetz J, Thrower M, Kane R, et al. Combination therapy with ribavirin and interferon in a cohort of children with hepatitis C and haemophilia followed at a pediatric haemophilia treatment center. Haemophilia 2004; 10:87–93.

50. Baker RD, Dee D, Baker SS. Response to pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin in children with chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41:111–114.

51. Knodell RG, Ishak KG, Black WC, et al. Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1981; 1:431–435.

52. Bedossa P, Poynard T. An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group. Hepatology 1996; 24:289–293.

53. Price L, Kowdley KV. The role of iron in the pathophysiology and treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Can J Gastroenterol 2009; 23:822–828.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 4 time(s).

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Efficacy and Safety of Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a or Alfa-2b Plus Ribavirin for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Druyts, E; Thorlund, K; Wu, P; Kanters, S; Yaya, S; Cooper, CL; Mills, EJ
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(7): 961-967.
10.1093/cid/cis1031
CrossRef
Medical Science Monitor
Vertical genotype 1 HCV infection treated successfully in the second year of life: A case report
Pawlowska, M; Halota, W; Smukalska, E
Medical Science Monitor, 18(): CS113-CS116.

World Journal of Gastroenterology
Pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for children with chronic hepatitis C
Rosen, I; Kori, M; Adiv, OE; Yerushalmi, B; Zion, N; Shaoul, R
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19(7): 1098-1103.
10.3748/wjg.v19.i7.1098
CrossRef
World Journal of Pediatrics
Treatment of children with chronic viral hepatitis: what is available and what is in store
Vajro, P; Veropalumbo, C; Maddaluno, S; Salerno, M; Parenti, G; Pignata, C
World Journal of Pediatrics, 9(3): 212-220.
10.1007/s12519-013-0426-0
CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

children and adolescents; chronic hepatitis C; clinical trials; peginterferon; ribavirin; treatment

Copyright 2011 by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN

Login

Article Tools

Images

Share

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.

Connect With Us

 

 

Twitter

twitter.com/JPGNonline

 

Visit JPGN.org on your smartphone. Scan this code (QR reader app required) with your phone and be taken directly to the site.