Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition:
NASPGHAN Clinical Guidelines
Guideline for the Evaluation of Cholestatic Jaundice in Infants: Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Moyer, Virginia MD, MPH; Freese, Deborah K. MD; Whitington, Peter F. MD; Olson, Alan D. MD; Brewer, Fred MD; Colletti, Richard B. MD; Heyman, Melvin B. MD, MPH
Santa Rosa, California
San Francisco, California
For the primary care provider, cholestatic jaundice in infancy, defined as jaundice caused by an elevated conjugated bilirubin, is an uncommon but potentially serious problem that indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection of cholestatic jaundice by the primary care physician and timely, accurate diagnosis by the pediatric gastroenterologist are important for successful treatment and a favorable prognosis. The Cholestasis Guideline Committee of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition has formulated a clinical practice guideline for the diagnostic evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in the infant. The Cholestasis Guideline Committee, consisting of a primary care pediatrician, a clinical epidemiologist (who also practices primary care pediatrics), and five pediatric gastroenterologists, based its recommendations on a comprehensive and systematic review of the medical literature integrated with expert opinion. Consensus was achieved through the Nominal Group Technique, a structured quantitative method.
The Committee examined the value of diagnostic tests commonly used for the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice and how those interventions can be applied to clinical situations in the infant. The guideline provides recommendations for management by the primary care provider, indications for consultation by a pediatric gastroenterologist, and recommendations for management by the pediatric gastroenterologist.
The Cholestasis Guideline Committee recommends that any infant noted to be jaundiced at 2 weeks of age be evaluated for cholestasis with measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin. However, breast-fed infants who can be reliably monitored and who have an otherwise normal history (no dark urine or light stools) and physical examination may be asked to return at 3 weeks of age and, if jaundice persists, have measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin at that time.
This document represents the official recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition on the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics has also endorsed these recommendations. These recommendations are a general guideline and are not intended as a substitute for clinical judgment or as a protocol for the care of all patients with this problem.
Cholestatic jaundice, characterized by elevation of serum conjugated bilirubin, is an uncommon but potentially serious condition that indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection of cholestatic jaundice by the primary care provider and timely, accurate diagnosis by the pediatric gastroenterologist are important for successful treatment and a favorable prognosis. In contrast, physiologic jaundice and breast milk jaundice, common causes of jaundice in the first weeks of life, are caused by an elevation of serum unconjugated bilirubin. Both are self-limited maturational disorders observed in many infants in the first weeks of life.
Cholestatic jaundice affects approximately 1 in every 2,500 infants (1,2), and is thus infrequently seen by most providers of medical care to infants. However, distinguishing jaundice caused by cholestasis from noncholestatic conditions is critical because cholestatic jaundice is much more likely to have a serious etiology that needs prompt diagnosis and therapy. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis, which account for most cases. Neonatal hepatitis has referred to a histologic appearance of widespread giant cell transformation. Although giant cell transformation is recognized to be non-specific and may be associated with infectious, metabolic, and syndromic disorders, this term is used to be consistent with the older literature reviewed for this guideline. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency causes another 5% to 15% of cases (1,2). The remaining cases are caused by a variety of other disorders, including extra-hepatic obstruction from common duct gallstone or choledochal cyst; metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, galactosemia, and hypothyroidism; inborn errors of bile acid metabolism; Alagille syndrome; infection; and other rare disorders (Table 1).
Infants with cholestatic jaundice caused by bacterial sepsis, galactosemia, hypopituitarism, or gallstone often appear acutely ill. These disorders require early diagnosis and urgent treatment. However, many infants with cholestatic jaundice appear otherwise healthy and grow normally. The benign appearance of such an infant may lull the parents or physician into believing that the jaundice is physiologic or caused by breast-feeding, when in fact it may be caused by biliary atresia. Biliary atresia occurs in 1 in 10,000 to 19,000 infants (3–6) (Elliott EJ, Australian Pediatric Surveillance Unit, Extra-hepatic Biliary Atresia Study Group, personal communication, 2001). Substantial observational evidence suggests that earlier diagnosis and surgical repair lead to better outcomes for this disorder (7). The Kasai portoenterostomy appears to have the greatest likelihood of re-establishment of bile flow and the longest term survival of the infant’s native liver when performed before the age of 45 to 60 days (7–10). Early diagnosis of many of the other conditions that cause cholestasis may also lead to better outcomes because better support of the infant may avoid complications of liver disease (11).
Despite these data showing that early diagnosis is potentially life saving, referral for evaluation of cholestatic jaundice frequently occurs after 45 to 60 days of age (12). In recognition of this, and noting that no evidence-based guideline for its evaluation currently exists, the Cholestasis Guideline Committee was formed by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) to develop a clinical practice guideline for the diagnostic evaluation of cholestasis in infants.
The Cholestasis Guideline Committee consisted of a general pediatrician, a clinical epidemiologist who also practices general pediatrics, and five pediatric gastroenterologists. The team addressed the problem of jaundice caused by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the 2- to 8-week-old infant. The guideline is intended to assist primary care pediatricians, neonatologists, family practitioners, nurse practitioners, physician’s assistants, pediatric gastroenterologists, and pediatric surgeons with the process of diagnosis of infants with cholestatic jaundice, and is specifically intended to decrease the time from initial presentation to diagnosis because of the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of biliary atresia. The targeted settings include primary care outpatient settings, as well as specialty referral facilities. This guideline is not intended for the care of the ill premature infant in the intensive care setting.
Cholestasis was defined as reduced bile formation or flow resulting in the retention of substances normally excreted into bile. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is the most common marker; issues regarding the specifics of bilirubin measurement are detailed below. A desirable outcome was defined as optimal treatment of the underlying conditions. Optimal treatment requires timely diagnosis of the cause of the jaundice, minimizing unnecessary diagnostic testing and consultation, and minimizing delay in diagnosis of time-sensitive conditions, such as biliary atresia.
The guideline development process was intended to incorporate the best available evidence from the medical literature, in combination with expert consensus when available evidence was limited. Using expert opinion, an initial diagnostic algorithm was developed, including a set of potentially useful diagnostic tests for infants with cholestatic jaundice. To develop evidence-based estimates of the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnostic tests under consideration, Medline (1966–2002) was searched without language restriction using the terms listed in Table 2. Unpublished literature was not sought.
Abstracts for articles found in each search were reviewed for relevance. After editorials, letters, and review articles were eliminated, original studies that appeared to address the accuracy and reliability of the tests in question for the diagnosis of biliary atresia were retrieved in full and independently reviewed by two committee members, using previously published criteria for the validity of studies of diagnostic tests (13) (Table 3). The key criteria include an independent, blind comparison of the diagnostic test to a criterion standard, performed in non-selected, consecutive patients at risk for the condition of interest. Studies were considered to meet minimum criteria for validity if the test was performed in consecutive patients and did not appear to influence the determination of the final diagnosis. Each article was assigned a score based on these criteria, and the quality of evidence underlying each of the recommendations made by the Cholestasis Guideline Committee was determined according to the scheme shown in Table 4.
The final algorithm (Fig. 1) is based on the evidence found for each test, combined with expert opinion and consensus when the published evidence was insufficient. Recommendations are summarized in Table 5. Consensus was achieved through the nominal group technique (14).
The guidelines were then reviewed by primary care physicians in community and academic practices. In addition, the guidelines were distributed to the NASPGHAN membership for review and comment and were officially endorsed by the NASPGHAN Executive Council. This document represents the official recommendations of NASPHGAN on the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice of the infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics has also endorsed these recommendations. This review and recommendations are a general guideline and are not intended as a substitute for clinical judgment or as a protocol for the care of all patients with this problem.
INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE JAUNDICED INFANT
The initial recognition and evaluation of any infant with possible cholestasis depends upon physicians and other providers of medical care to infants. The age limits of 2 weeks to 8 weeks of age used in this guideline were selected because they represent times when primary care providers typically examine healthy infants. As the evaluation proceeds, the tests to accurately diagnose cholestasis fall increasingly in the province of the referral center and pediatric gastroenterologist. Different care models or differing relationships between primary physicians and referral centers may alter the point at which the responsibility for the evaluation shifts from primary care to specialist. The goal remains the early detection and efficient diagnostic evaluation of cholestasis in infants.
No screening test can predict which infant will experience cholestasis (15). Thus, the detection of cholestasis rests on the clinical recognition of jaundice, pale stools, and/or dark urine by the parent or primary care provider. Each of these findings is an imperfect method of detecting cholestasis. Jaundice at 2 weeks of age is a relatively common finding, observed in 2.4% to 15% of newborns (16,17). Most such infants have unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia because of breast milk jaundice, a benign condition, although a recent report documents occasional kernicterus in otherwise healthy-appearing infants (18). In one study, jaundice was found in 9% of breast-fed infants at 4 weeks of age, but in fewer than 1 in 1,000 bottle-fed infants (19). Testing of all jaundiced newborns at the 2-week visit will detect cholestasis in relatively few infants (for every 60 to 375 infants with visible jaundice, 1 will have cholestasis). However, the next scheduled health maintenance visit generally does not occur until 2 months of age, beyond the optimal time for intervention in biliary atresia.
The report of pale stools by the parent or observation of clay colored stool by the physician raises the suspicion of cholestasis. In one study of 3,629 infants, 4 passed pale stools during the first 4 weeks of life, none more than three times. None of these infants had liver disease. The high specificity of persistent pale stools means that this finding almost certainly indicates disease when it is present. However, infants with biliary atresia have been noted to have pigmented stools at presentation, and stool color is variable in other conditions causing cholestasis (20). Parents do not appear to be reliable observers of stool color: even when the specific question “What color is your baby’s stool?” was added to a booklet received by all parents for well care, the average age for definitive care for infants with biliary atresia was not improved (4). A scoring card displaying color photographs of normal and abnormal stools modestly improved case finding in a subsequent program (21).
Dark urine is also a nonspecific indicator of increased conjugated bilirubin. No studies could be found that addressed the utility of this sign for case finding. Literature review did not identify any studies that defined specificity or sensitivity for the findings of jaundice, pale stools, or dark urine in combination. Thus, the clinician must continue to test for cholestasis when these findings are present, despite the low yield. The American Academy of Pediatrics practice parameter on the management of hyperbilirubinemia in the healthy term newborn recommends testing for conjugated hyperbilirubinemia if jaundice is accompanied by dark urine or light stool or if it persists beyond 3 weeks (22).
The Cholestasis Guideline Committee recommends that any infant noted to be jaundiced at 2 weeks of age be evaluated for cholestasis with measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin. However, breast-fed infants who can be reliably monitored and who have an otherwise normal history (no dark urine or light stools) and physical examination (Table 6) may be asked to return at 3 weeks of age and, if jaundice persists, have measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin at that time.
Bacterial infections, including urinary tract infection, are a well known cause of concomitant conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, probably because of the effect of bacterial endotoxin on bile formation (23,24). Otherwise asymptomatic jaundiced infants may have urinary tract infection, particularly if the onset of jaundice occurs after 8 days of age (25). Jaundice caused by an acute infection resolves when the acute illness has been addressed. Because jaundice is more likely to be related to the underlying illness, rather than primary liver disease, in the acutely ill infant, management is oriented to the underlying acute illness.
Because either conjugated or unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may be present in a jaundiced infant who does not appear acutely ill, measurement of serum bilirubin that includes both total and direct (conjugated) bilirubin is recommended. The most commonly used laboratory determination (the diazo or van den Bergh method) does not specifically measure conjugated bilirubin but reports direct bilirubin. For methodological reasons, the higher the total bilirubin (even if it is all unconjugated), the higher the reported direct bilirubin (26–28). Measurements of direct bilirubin may vary significantly both within and between laboratories (29–32). The methods used may also influence the measurement of conjugated bilirubin (33–35). A specific measurement of conjugated bilirubin, such as that obtained with the Ektachem system, is optimal. Because canalicular excretion of bilirubin can be rate limiting to overall clearance, infants with high nonconjugated bilirubin may retain some conjugated bilirubin. Therefore, in the presence of elevated total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin levels are considered abnormal when values greater than 1.0 mg/dL are reported (36). Practitioners whose laboratories use the Ektachem system could use a value of conjugated bilirubin greater than 1.0 to define cholestasis, regardless of total bilirubin. For this guideline, we defined an abnormal direct bilirubin as a value greater than 1.0 mg/dL if the total bilirubin is less than 5 mg/dL, or a value of direct bilirubin that represents more than 20% of the total bilirubin if the total bilirubin is greater than 5 mg/dL. It is important to be aware of the potential for error in these measurements and consult with the laboratory if the measurements are inconsistent with the appearance of the patient. Urine testing has also been used to diagnose cholestasis: assay of sulfated bile acids in urine was found in a single study to distinguish control infants from those with cholestasis, but this test is not generally available (37).
INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE INFANT WITH CONJUGATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
For infants with only unconjugated hyperbilirubin-emia, practitioners can refer to the previously published guideline on management of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia from the American Academy of Pediatrics (22). If the conjugated serum bilirubin is elevated, cholestasis is present. The further evaluation of an infant with cholestasis is a matter of some urgency. Because biliary atresia is one of the possible causes of cholestasis, the goal of management is to complete the diagnostic evaluation, or at least to exclude biliary atresia, by 45 to 60 days of age. History and physical examination can help guide the diagnostic process for the infant with cholestasis. Some findings on history or physical examination will lead the clinician to other diagnostic possibilities. For example, 3% of infants with severe ABO hemolytic disease have conjugated hyperbilirubinemia that may persist until 2 weeks of age; thus, further observation may suffice for these infants (38). Table 6 describes abnormalities that may be present on history and physical examination and their potential significance. Abnormalities suggestive of a particular disease entity would lead to more focused diagnostic evaluation, rather than further investigation of cholestasis. It is important to evaluate or repeat the newborn screen for galactosemia and hypothyroidism because these conditions can present with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and require urgent management to prevent serious sequelae (39–42). Keeping in mind that the diagnosis of one disease does not preclude the presence of another, additional evaluation is necessary if the jaundice does not resolve with treatment of these specific conditions.
Consultation with a pediatric gastroenterologist is essential for infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia of unknown cause. The nature of this consultation may vary among practice settings. A telephone consultation may be particularly useful for practitioners at some distance from specialty care. Of the tests listed in Box 15 of the algorithm (Fig. 1), which should be ordered and where they should be performed is likely to vary, depending on which of the tests are readily available to the referring physician, and on whether examination of the patient by the specialist will be delayed. If the level of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin is found to be low, Pi typing is indicated. If an obvious extrinsic obstruction (such as choledochal cyst) is present, referral for surgery is warranted. Of the tests listed at this decision point, the ultrasound is the most operator dependent, and thus may be most appropriately performed at the referral center by more experienced personnel. In many practice settings, all of the listed tests would be best obtained by immediate referral of the patient for evaluation by the pediatric gastroenterologist. In the evaluation for infants with possible biliary atresia, it is optimal for an experienced pediatric surgeon to also be involved.
Ultrasonography is useful to identify anatomic abnormalities such as choledochal cyst. The finding of a small or absent gallbladder may suggest extrahepatic biliary atresia, but reported sensitivities as low as 73% indicate that ultrasound cannot be used to rule out this diagnosis. Several reports of high sensitivity and specificity of the “triangular cord” sign on ultrasound suggest that this test may be useful in the diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia.(43–45) Again, this appears to be operator dependent. Despite these limitations, we recommend ultrasonography for the evaluation of the infant with cholestasis of unknown etiology.
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) has been used in the past to distinguish biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis, but wide variability in levels makes interpretation of test results difficult. Especially in the older infant with cholestasis, a very low GGT level may be useful to exclude obstruction and, in conjunction with an elevated alkaline phosphatase level, suggests genetic and metabolic causes of intracellular cholestasis. The degree of elevation of GGT is not useful in discriminating the etiology of the cholestasis. The evidence supporting the use of ultrasound and GGT is summarized in Table 7.
FURTHER EVALUATION OF THE INFANT WITH CHOLESTASIS
Once it is established that cholestasis is present, the principal diagnostic concern is the differentiation of hepatocellular from obstructive cholestasis, of disorders of physiology from disorders of anatomy, and of disease that is managed medically from disease that is managed surgically. The tests that have been used to make this differentiation and about which we were able to find at least some evidence regarding their value were percutaneous liver biopsy, hepatobiliary radionuclide scan, and duodenal aspirate. Evidence and citations for the use of these tests are summarized in Table 7.
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy
Most studies of percutaneous liver biopsy are retrospective analyses using as a gold standard the clinical course or surgical or autopsy results. Biopsy interpretation is pathologist dependent, and requires experience that many general pathologists lack. Review of all of the studies of biopsy revealed that 50% to 99% of patients with biliary atresia are correctly identified with biopsy. Biliary atresia is incorrectly suspected from the biopsy in 0% to 46%.
In 1974, Brough and Bernstein (46) demonstrated the diagnostic usefulness of the percutaneous liver biopsy and established the diagnostic criteria that are in current use. They compared the original pathologic diagnosis in 181 consecutive patients to the ultimate diagnosis based on surgical findings and long-term follow-up. The original diagnosis was correct in 148 patients (93.7%), a high level of accuracy. More importantly, the type of error seen in the 10 patients with incorrect diagnoses would not lead to missed diagnosis of biliary atresia. In only one patient with biliary atresia was the original biopsy interpreted as hepatitis, which would lead to delay in the diagnosis and loss of important time before surgical correction. The remaining nine were suspected of having biliary atresia but actually had hepatitis. In this report, liver biopsy had a very high sensitivity (99%) and specificity (92%) for the diagnosis of biliary atresia, with somewhat less specificity for the diagnosis of neonatal hepatitis. Unfortunately, 23 patients were lost to follow-up, which reduces the value of this study. The highest quality subsequent studies performed using the Brough and Bernstein criteria demonstrate very good sensitivity and specificity for biliary atresia.
The interpretation of a single liver biopsy in a child with neonatal cholestasis is also limited by the dynamics of disease. Many cholestatic conditions express themselves differently with time. Liver biopsy specimens obtained early in the course of biliary atresia may be indistinguishable from hepatitis (47). In addition to being able to visualize the hepatocanalicular cholestasis and injury, the liver biopsy also can provide disease-specific findings. Examples include PAS-positive granules in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, ductal paucity in Alagille syndrome, necroinflammatory duct lesions in sclerosing cholangitis, and other findings that are relatively specific for metabolic and storage diseases.
The evidence indicates that liver biopsy can be performed safely and expeditiously in young infants and is useful in establishing specific diagnoses (48). The Cholestasis Guideline Committee recommends that a liver biopsy be performed in most infants with undiagnosed cholestasis, to be interpreted by a pathologist with expertise in pediatric liver disease. A percutaneous liver biopsy is recommended before performing a surgical procedure to diagnose biliary atresia. If the biopsy is done early in the course of the disease (before 6 weeks of age), the biopsy may have to be repeated if the results are equivocal.
Injected radioactive material is normally excreted into the intestine within a predictable period of time. Nonvisualization of radioactivity within the intestine (in the scanning field comprising the intestines) 24 hours after injection is considered to be an abnormal result, indicating biliary obstruction or hepatocellular dysfunction. In the studies reviewed, a variety of radiolabeled scintigraphic agents were used, the diagnostic criteria varied greatly, and no blinded comparisons were found between scintigraphy and a gold standard for diagnosis. Although it is thought that the precision of the test can be improved by administering phenobarbital for several days before imaging, no studies are available to confirm or refute this hypothesis. In the available studies, the sensitivity of scintigraphy for the diagnosis of biliary atresia is high; virtually all patients with complete biliary obstruction showed no excretion on scintiscan. A few patients with a negative test (tracer evident in the intestine) later experienced biliary atresia, presumably because of disease evolving from incomplete to complete obstruction. Specificity of scintigraphy for biliary atresia or other obstructive processes is low; many patients without anatomic obstruction will not excrete tracer. Although the high sensitivity for biliary atresia makes this a fairly good single test for detecting disease, it is time consuming and expensive and does have significant false-positive and false-negative results. The Cholestasis Guideline Committee concludes that hepatobiliary scintigraphy generally adds little to the routine evaluation of the cholestatic infant but may be of value if other means for excluding biliary obstruction are not available.
Limited data indicate that duodenal aspirate analysis for bilirubin concentration can identify patients with biliary obstruction with a sensitivity similar to that of scintiscan. In this test, fluid is obtained from the duodenum, either by placing a tube or a string in the duodenum, and analyzed for bilirubin concentration. A positive test for obstruction is one in which the bilirubin concentration of the aspirate is no greater than serum concentration. This would appear to be a low-tech, inexpensive alternative to scintiscan, yet it is not commonly used, probably because it is time and labor intensive, invasive, and inconvenient. The Cholestasis Guideline Committee concludes that the duodenal aspirate test may be useful in situations in which other tests to detect biliary obstruction are not available.
Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography
The few reports available to date have studied a very small number of patients, and although the results are encouraging, firm conclusions are not possible. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) requires deep sedation or general anesthesia. Additional technical advancement and clinical experience are necessary before MRCP can be used in the evaluation of cholestatic infants. The Cholestasis Guideline Committee concludes that this test cannot be routinely recommended based on the currently available data.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an evolving technology that has been increasingly used in some tertiary referral centers to diagnose the cause of cholestasis in young infants. ERCP involves endoscopic intubation of the biliary (and pancreatic) ducts via the ampulla of Vater with a small tapered catheter and injection of contrast material to facilitate radiologic visualization of the ductal systems. A small pediatric side-viewing duodenoscope has enhanced the capability to perform this procedure in young infants. Most endoscopists prefer to perform this procedure with the patient under general anesthesia.
The data supporting the use of ERCP for the evaluation of the cholestatic infant are sparse. Many of the reports simply document the use of the prototype smaller side-viewing instrument for these patients. Operators report mixed success with the procedure to distinguish biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis and other forms of nonoperative cholestasis. Most tertiary centers use ERCP to sort as surgical or nonsurgical cases that remain equivocal after liver biopsy. No controlled studies have been conducted to compare endoscopic techniques. In larger studies, sensitivity and specificity are excellent, but failed cannulation and/or visualization are reported in more than 10%. Patient populations vary from young infants to older infants (before or after 60 to 90 days of age). No controlled study has been done to demonstrate that ERCP will alter the final diagnosis. A cost-benefit analysis of ERCP has not been performed, but it is possible that the procedure could obviate the need for surgical exploration in some infants. ERCP in pediatric patients has been recommended only at facilities with appropriate support staff and specialists with expertise in this procedure in young infants (49).
The Cholestasis Guideline Committee concludes that ERCP is not frequently used because of the cost of instrumentation and the need for technical expertise. The usefulness of ERCP appears to be center and operator dependent. Clinicians with the appropriate expertise and instrumentation will find the test a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the difficult-to-diagnose cause of cholestasis in an infant in whom laparotomy is being contemplated. The Committee recommends that a liver biopsy be obtained before subjecting an infant to ERCP. Under selected circumstances, ERCP can clarify the cause of neonatal cholestasis and obviate the need for laparotomy. ERCP can be recommended in selected cases at facilities with appropriate support staff and specialists with expertise in this procedure in young infants.
This test is no longer widely available; the few studies on this subject are of poor quality and suggest poor sensitivity and specificity for differentiating biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. The Cholestasis Guideline Committee recommends that this test not be performed.
The rapid and effective diagnosis of the cause of cholestasis in an infant is challenging. The initial detection of these infants remains in the domain of the primary care provider and depends on the recognition of jaundice past the age of 2 weeks or recognition of abnormal stool or urine color. Laboratory testing for cholestasis should include direct (conjugated) bilirubin. A direct bilirubin value greater than 1.0 mg/dL if the total bilirubin is less than 5 mg/dL or a direct bilirubin more than 20% of the total bilirubin if the total bilirubin is greater than 5 mg/dL is considered abnormal. The relative rarity of cholestatic jaundice in contrast to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in this age range dictates that many jaundiced infants will be tested to find a few with elevated direct bilirubin. It is recommended that primary care providers continue to screen for cholestasis, despite its rarity, because of the gravity of the consequences of missed diagnosis.
The Cholestasis Guideline Committee recommends that any infant noted to be jaundiced at 2 weeks of age be evaluated for cholestasis with measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin. However, breast-fed infants who can be reliably monitored and who have an otherwise normal history (no dark urine or light stools) and physical examination may be asked to return at 3 weeks of age and, if jaundice persists, have measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin at that time.
Identification of cholestasis warrants a prompt effort to accurately diagnose the cause. In an ill appearing infant, the primary cause of the acute problem should be sought and treated. Cholestasis that does not resolve with resolution of the acute problem requires thorough evaluation. In a well appearing infant, cholestasis should be evaluated without delay because this condition has etiologies that are both serious and treatable. Patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia often appear well at initial presentation, and in these patients there is evidence that early diagnosis and surgical bile drainage is associated with longer survival of the native liver.
Most of the diagnostic tests that are used to determine the etiology of cholestasis in infants are operator dependent and variable in utility, and most are not commonly performed outside of referral centers. Although specific circumstances may support the performance of diagnostic testing at a referring hospital, most practitioners will need to use the diagnostic expertise of a referral center. Diagnostic workup by referring hospitals may be most useful to quickly exclude some of the many causes of cholestasis.
For all diagnostic tests reviewed, the sensitivity and specificity varied widely. Percutaneous liver biopsy had the greatest diagnostic accuracy in published studies. However, because of the dynamic and progressive nature of extrahepatic biliary atresia, even this test can be misleading. Scintigraphy appears to be primarily useful in excluding extrahepatic obstruction, consistent with the diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia. Sonographic evaluation is currently useful for excluding anatomic abnormalities but may have a greater value in the future if descriptions of new findings (such as the “triangular cord” sign) are corroborated. ERCP may have a role in centers with pediatric gastroenterologists experienced in its use. Too little experience with MRCP has been reported to analyze its utility. Duodenal aspirate or string test may be useful in remote sites or if other testing is not readily available.
In summary, the diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis is an urgent matter. This guideline and algorithm have been developed to assist in this process. No single pathway appears to be clearly superior for the diagnosis of conditions leading to cholestasis. A guide is provided here for clinicians who are challenged with the prospect of detecting and evaluating the rare infant with cholestasis. Vigilance is crucial in detecting these patients, selecting appropriate and timely diagnostic testing based on the resources available in their own institutions, and referring the infant to a pediatric gastroenterologist who can provide the essential diagnostic and treatment modalities for optimal outcome. The scarcity and relatively low quality of research found in this area indicate that further research is needed.
1. Dick MC, Mowat AP. Hepatitis syndrome in infancy: an epidemiologic survey with 10-year follow up. Arch Dis Child
2. Balistreri WF. Neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr
3. Yoon PW, Bresee JS, Olney RS, et al. Epidemiology of biliary atresia: a population based study. Pediatrics
4. Matsui A, Ishikawa T. Identification of infants with biliary atresia in Japan. Lancet
5. McKiernan PJ, Baker AJ, Kelly DA. The frequency and outcome of biliary atresia in the UK and Ireland. Lancet
6. Danks DM, Campbell PE, Jack I, et al. Studies of the aetiology of neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Arch Dis Child
7. Chardot C, Carton M, Spire-Benelac N, et al. Is the Kasai operation still indicated in children older than 3 months diagnosed with biliary atresia?J Pediatr
8. Mieli-Vergani G, Howard ER, Portman B, et al. Late referral for biliary atresia–missed opportunities for effective surgery. Lancet
9. Altman RP, Lilly JR, Greenfeld J, et al. A multivariable risk factor analysis of the portoenterostomy (Kasai) procedure for biliary atresia. Ann Surg
10. Mowat AP, Davidson LL, Dick MC. Earlier identification of biliary atresia and hepatobiliary disease: selective screening in the third week of life. Arch Dis Child
11. Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Cook PJL, et al. Outcome of liver disease associated with a-1-antirypsin deficiency (PiZ): implications for genetic counseling and antenatal diagnosis. Arch Dis Child
12. Hussein M, Howard ER, Mieli-Vergani G, et al. Jaundice at 14 days of age: exclude biliary atresia. Arch Dis Child
13. Jaeschke R, Guyatt G, Sackett DL. Users’ guides to the medical literature III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. JAMA
14. McMurray AR. Three decision-making aids: brainstorming, nominal group, and delphi technique. J Nursing Staff Dev
15. Mushtaq I, Logan S, Morris M, et al. Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry. BMJ
16. Winfield CR, MacFaul R. Clinical study of jaundice in breast and bottle fed babies. Arch Dis Child
17. Kelly DA, Stanton A. Jaundice in babies: implications for community screening for biliary atresia. BMJ
18. Johnson LH, Bhutani VK, Brown AK. System-based approach to management of neonatal jaundice and prevention of kernicterus. J Pediatr
19. Crofts DJ, Michel VJ-M, Rigby AS, et al. Assessment of stool colour in community management of prolonged jaundice in infancy. Acta Paediatr
20. Burton EM, Babcock DS, Heubi JE, et al. Neonatal jaundice: clinical and ultrasonographic findings. South Med J
21. Matsui A, Dodoriki M. Screening for biliary atresia. Lancet
22. American Academy of Pediatrics Provisional Committee for Quality Improvement and Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the healthy term newborn. Pediatrics
23. Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ. Cholestatic effects of Escherichia coli
endotoxin on the isolated perfused rat liver. Gastroenterology
24. Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ. Studies on the effects of E. coli
endotoxin on canalicular bile formation in the isolated perfused rat liver. J Lab Clin Med
25. Garcia FJ, Nager AL. Jaundice as an early diagnostic sign of urinary tract infection in infancy. Pediatrics
26. Heirwegh KP, Fevery J, Meuwissen JA, et al. Recent advances in the separation and analysis of diazo-positive bile pigments. Methods Biochem Anal
27. Tisdale WA, Klatskin G, Kinsella ED. The significance of the direct-reacting fraction of serum bilirubin in hemolytic jaundice. Am J Med
28. Fevery J, Claes J, Heirwegh K, et al. Hyperbilirubinemia: significance of the ratio between direct-reacting and total bilirubin. Clin Chem Acta
29. Pleasure JR. Bilirubin measurement problems. Pediatrics
30. Lott JA, Doumas BT. ‘Direct’ and total bilirubin tests: contemporary problems. Clin Chem
31. Vreman HJ, Verter J, Oh W, et al. Interlaboratory variability of bilirubin measurements. Clin Chem
32. Doumas BT, Eckfeldt JH. Errors in measurement of total bilirubin: a perennial problem. Clin Chem
33. Gulian JM, Dalmasso C, Millet V, et al. Influence of photoisomers in bilirubin determinations on Kodak Ektachem and Hitachi analysers in neonatal specimens: study of the contribution of structural and configurational isomers. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem
34. Doumas BT, Wu TW. The measurement of bilirubin fractions in serum. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci
35. Francoual J, Myara A, Benattar C, et al. Investigation of total and conjugated bilirubin determination during the neonatal period. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem
36. Rosenthal P, Blanckaert N, Kabra PM, et al. Formation of bilirubin conjugates in human newborns. Pediatr Res
37. Matsui A, Kasano Y, Yamaushi Y, et al. Direct enzymatic assay of urinary sulfated bile acids to replace serum bilirubin testing for selective screening of neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr
38. Sivan Y, Merlob P, Nutman J, et al. Direct hyperbilirubinemia complicating ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn. Clin Pediatr (Phila)
39. Kaufman FR, Costin G, Thomas DW, et al. Neonatal cholestasis and hypopituitarism. Arch Dis Child
40. Ellaway CJ, Silinik M, Cowell CT, et al. Cholestatic jaundice and congenital hypopituitarism. J Paediatr Child Health
41. Sheehan AG, Martin SR, Stephure D, et al. Neonatal cholestasis, hypoglycemia, and congenital hypopituitarism. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
42. Choo-Kang LR, Sun CC, Counts DR. Cholestasis and hypoglycemia: manifestations of congenital anterior hypopituitarism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
43. Choi SO, Park WH, Lee HJ. Ultrasonographic ‘triangular cord’: the most definitive finding for noninvasive diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia. Eur J Pediatr Surg
44. Tan Kendrick AP, Phua KB, Ooi BC, et al. Making the diagnosis of biliary atresia using the triangular cord sign and gallbladder length. Pediatr Radiol
45. Kotb MA, Kotb A, Sheba MF, et al. Evaluation of the triangular cord sign in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. Pediatrics
46. Brough AJ, Bernstein J. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in early infancy: a reassessment of liver biopsy. Hum Pathol
47. Landing BH, Wells TR, Ramicone E. Time course of the intra-hepatic lesion of extrahepatic biliary atresia: a morphometric study. Pediatr Pathol
48. Fox VF, Cohen MB, Whitington PF, et al. Outpatient liver biopsy in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
49. Fox VL, Werlin SL, Heyman MB. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in children. Subcommittee on Endoscopy and Procedures of the Patient Care Committee of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
50. Gates GF, Sinatra FR, Thomas DW. Cholestatic syndromes in infancy and childhood. AJR 1980;134:1141–8.
51. Davidson S, Frand M, Itzchak Y. Hepatobiliary ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in neonatal jaundice. Isr J Med Sci 1982;18:947–51.
52. Abramson SJ, Treves S, Teele RL. The infant with possible biliary atresia: evaluation by ultrasound and nuclear medicine. Pediatr Radiol
53. Kirks DR, Coleman RE, Filston HC, Rosenberg ER, Merten DF. An imaging approach to persistent neonatal jaundice. ARJ 1984;142:461–5.
54. Green D, Carroll BA. Ultrasonography in the jaundiced infant: a new approach. J Ultrasound Med
55. Cox KL, Stadalnik RC, McGahan JP, Sanders K, Cannon RA, Ruebner BH. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with technetium-99m disofenin in the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
56. Ikeda S, Sera Y, Akagi M. Serial ultrasonic examination to differentiate biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis—special reference to changes in size of the gallbladder. Eur J Pediatr 1989;148:396–400.
57. Gopi VK, Joseph TP, Varma KK. Ultrasonography in conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Ind Pedtr 1989;26:723–5.
58. Zhou P, Qin R. B mode ultrasound in the diagnosis of biliary atresia [Chinese]. Chunghua I Hsueh Tsa Chih 1990;8:461–2.
59. Burton EM, Babcock DS, Heubi JE, Gelfand MJ. Neonatal jaundice: clinical and ultrasonographic findings. So Med J 1990;83:24–302.
60. Emblem R, Stake G, Monclair T. Progress in the treatment of biliary atresia: a plea for surgical intervention within the first two months of life in infants with persistent cholestasis. Acta Pediatr
61. Lai MW, Chang MH, Hsu SC, et al. Differential diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis: a prospective study. J Pediatr Gastronenterol Nutr 1994;18:121–7.
62. Ikeda S, Sera Y, Yamamoto H, Ogawa M. Effect of phenobarbital on serial ultrasonic examination in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice. Clin Imag 1994;18:146–8.
63. Hessel G, Yamada RM, Escanhowla CAF, Butofff-Silva JM, Toledo RJ. Valor de ultrasonografia abdominal e da biopsia hepatica percutanea no diagnostico diferencial da colestase nwonatal. [Portuguese]Arg Gastronentero 1994;31:75–82.
64. Lin WY, Lin CC, Changlai SP, Shen YY. Comparison of Tc-99m disofenin cholescintigraphy with ultrasonography in the differentiation of biliary atresia from other forms of neonatal jaundice. Pediatr Surg Int
65. Ikeda S, Yoshihisa S, Ohshiro H, Uchino S, Akizuki M, Kondo Y. Gallbladder contraction in biliary atresia: a pitfall of ultrasound diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol
66. Farrant P, Meire HB, Vergani-Mieli G. Ultrasound features of the gall bladder in infants presenting with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Brit J Radiol
67. Choi SO, Park WH, Lee HJ, Woo SK. ‘Triangular cord’: a sonographic finding applicable in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. J Pediatr Surg
68. Park WH, Choi SO, Lee HJ, Kim SP, Zeon SK, Lee SL. A new diagnostic approach to biliary atresia with emphasis on the ultrasonographic triangular cord sign: comparison of ultrasonography, hepatobiliary scintigraphy, and liver needle biopsy in the evaluation of infantile cholestasis. J Pediatr Surg
69. Park WH, Choi SO, Lee HJ. The ultrasonographic ‘triangular cord’ coupled with gallbladder images in the diagnostic prediction of biliary atresia from infantile intrahepatic cholestasis. J Pediatr Surg
70. Kim MJ, Park YN, Han SJ, et al. Biliary atresia in neonates and infants: triangular area of high signal intensity in the porta hepatis at T2-weighted MR cholangiography with US and histopathologic correlation. Radiology 2000;215:315–401.
71. Platt MS, Potter JL, Boeckman CR, Jaberg, C. Elevated GGTP/SGOT ratio. An early indicator of infantile obstructive cholangiopathy. Am J Dis Child
72. Wright K, Christie DL. Use of g-glutamyl transpeptidase in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. Am J Dis Child
73. Manolaki AG, Larcher VF, Mowat AP, Barrett JJ, Portmann BB, Howard ER. The prelaparotomy diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia. Arch Dis Child
74. Fung KP, Lau SP. g-Glutamyl transpeptidase activity and its serial measurement in differentiation between extrahepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1985;4:208–13.
75. Tazawa Y, Yamada M, Nakagawa M, et al. Significance of serum lipoprotein-X gammaglutamyltranspeptidase in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. A preliminary study in 27 cholestatic young infants. Eur J Ped 1986;145:54–7.
76. Deutsch J, Kurz R, Muller WD, Becker H. Lipoprotein X, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and biliary atresia. Eur J Pediatr 1987;146:313–4.
77. Fung KP, Lau SP. Differentiation between extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis by discriminant analysis. J Paediatr Child Health
78. Tazawa Y, Nakagawa M, Abukawa D, et al. Fall and rise variations of serum GGTP in preoperative infants with biliary atresia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1990;4:555–8.
79. Maggiore O, Hadchouel BM, Lemonnier A, Alagille D. Diagnostic value of serum g-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in liver diseases in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1993;12:21–6.
80. Yamagiwa I, Iwafuchi M, Obata K, Saito H. Pre-operative time course changes in liver function tests in biliary atresia: Its usefulness in the discrimination of biliary atresia in early infancy. Acta Paediatrica Japonica 1996;38:506–12.
81. Sanz CR, Castilla EN. Papel de la biopsia hepatica en el diagnostico de la colestasis prolongada en lactantes. La Revista de Investigacion Clinica 1992;44:193–202.
82. Zerbini MCN, Gallucci SDD, Maezono R, et al. Liver biopsy in neonatal cholestasis: a review on statistical grounds. Mod Pathol 1997;10:793–9.
83. Hays DM, Woolley MM, Snyder WH, et al. Diagnosis of biliary atresia: relative accuracy of percutaneous liver biopsy, open liver biopsy, and operative cholangiography. J Pediatr 1967;71:598–607.
84. Ferry GD, Selby ML, Udall J, Finegold M, Nichols B. Guide to early diagnosis of biliary obstruction in infancy. Clin Pediatr 1985;24:305–11.
85. Tolia V, Dubois RS, Kagalwalla A, Fleming S, Dua V. Comparison of radionuclear scintigraphy and liver biopsy in the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1986;8:30–4.
86. Deutsch J. Value of percutaneous blind liver biopsy in preoperative diagnosis of atresia of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 1987;11:763–9.
87. Guelrud M, Jaen D, Mendoza S, Plaz J, Torres P. ERCP in the diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia. Gastrointestinal Endosc 1991;37:522–6.
88. Yachha SK, Khanduri A, Kumar M, et al. Neonatal cholestasis syndrome: an appraisal at a tertiary center. Indian Pedr 1996;33:729–34.
89. Collier BD, Treves S, Davis MA, Heyman S, Subramantian G, McAfee JG. Simultaneous 99mTc-P-Buty-IDA and 131l-Rose bengal scintigraphy in neonatal jaundice. Radiology 1980;134:719–22.
90. Majd M, Reba RC, Altman RP. Effect of phenobarbital on 99mTC-IDA scintigraphy in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice. Sem Nuc Med 1981;11:194–204.
91. Majd M, Reba RC, Altman RP. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice. Pediatrics
92. Ohi R, Klingensmith WC, Lilly JR. diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in infants and children with Tc-99m-Diethyl-IDA imaging. Clin Nuc Med 1981;6:297–302.
93. Hitch DC, Leonard JC, Pysher TJ, Manion CV, Smith EI. Differentiation of cholestatic jaundice in infants. Am J Surg
94. Leonard JC, Hitch DC, Manion CV. The use of Diethyl-IDA Tc 99m clearance curves in the differentiation of biliary atresia from other forms of neonatal jaundice. Radiology 1982;142:773–6.
95. Gerhold JP, Kilingensmith WC, Kuni CC, et al. Diagnosis of biliary atresia with radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging. Radiology
96. Wynchank S, Guillet J, Leccia F, Soubiran G, Blanquet P. Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Clin Nuc Med 1984;9:121–4.
97. Jaw TS, Wu CC, Ho YH, Huang BL, Lu CC. Diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in infants: Tc-99m DISIDA in duodenal juice. J Nucl Med 1984;25:360–3.
98. Johnston GS, Rosenbaum RC, Hill JL, Diaconis JN. Differentiation of jaundice in infancy: an application of radionuclide biliary studies. J Surg Onc 1985;30:206–8.
99. Ang ES, Goh ASW, Quak SH, Phua KB, Sundram FX. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of biliary atresia—a Singapore experience. Ann Acad Med 1986;15:502–6.
100. Dick MC, Mowat AP. Biliary scintigraphy with DISIDA—a simpler way of showing bile duct patency in suspected biliary atresia. Arch Dis Child 1986;61:191–2.
101. Ben-Haim S, Seabold JE, Kao SCS, Johnson J, Tran D, Brown BP. Utility of Tc-99m mebrofenin scintigraphy in the assessment of infantile jaundice. Clin Nuc Med 1995;20:153–63.
102. Spivak W, Sarkar S, Winter D, Glassman M, Donlon E, Tucker KJ. Diagnostic utility of hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-DISIDA in neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr
103. El Tumi MA, Clarke MB, Barrett JJ, Mowat AP. Ten minute radiopharmaceutical test in biliary atresia. Arch Did Child 1987;62:180–4.
104. Verreault J, Danais S, Blanchard H, Lamoureux F, Soucy JP, Lamoureux J. Scintigraphie hepatobilaire au disida-99mTc et cholangiopathies obstructives infantiles. [French]Chir Pediatr 1987;28:1–7.
105. Rosenthal P, Miller JH, Sinatra FR. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and the string test in the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1989;8:292–6.
106. Portnoy O, Granot E, Katz S. Neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia [Hebrew]Harefuah 1994;126:443–7.
107. Ferretti-Cisneros MC, Fernandes MIM, Galvao LC, Maciel LMZ, Sawamura R. Excrecao de 99mTc-DISIDA pelo trato biliar no diagnostico etiologico da colestase neonatal.[Portugese]Arg Gastroenterol 1995;32:85–9.
108. Gilmour SM, Hershkop M, Reifen R, Gilday D, Roberts EA. Outcome of hepatobiliary scanning in neonatal hepatitis syndrome. J Nucl Med
109. Halim AJ, Yakin F. Prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia—evaluation using duodenal fluid inspection for bile. Med J Malaysia 1983;38:327–30.
110. Rosenthal P, Liebman WM, Sinatra FR, Perman Ja, Thaler MM. String test in evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in infancy. J Pediatr 1985;107:253–4.
111. Greene HL, Helinek GL. Letter to the editor. J Pediatr 1980;97:512.
112. Penna FJ, Leao E. Duodenal intubation in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in infants. Arq Gastroenterol 1982;19:143–6.
113. Yamashiro Y, Robinson PG, Lari J, Dodge JA. Duodenal bile acids in diagnosis of congenital biliary atresia. J Ped Surg 1983;18:278–9.
114. Guibaud L, Lachaud A, Touraine R, Guibal AL, Pelizzari M, et.al. MR Cholangiography in Neonates and Infants: Feasibility and Preliminary Applications. AJA 1998;170:27–31.
115. Miyazaki T, Yamashita Y, Tang Y, et al. Single-shot MR cholangiopancreatography of neonates, infants, and young children. AJA 1998;170:33–7.
116. Jaw TW, Kuo YT, Liu GC, Chen SH, Wang CK. MR cholangiography in the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis. Radiology
117. Ng KK, Wan YL, Lui KW, et al. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for evaluation of obstructive jaundice. J Formos Med Assoc 2000;96:167–71.
118. Betz B, Bisset GS, Johnson ND, Daugherty CC, Balistren WF. MR imaging of biliary cysts in children with biliary atresia: clinical associations and pathologic correlation. AJR
119. Guelrud M, Jaen D, Torres P, et al. Endoscopic cholangiopancreatography in the infant: evaluation of a new prototype pediatric duodenoscope. Gastrointestinal Endo 1987;33:4–8.
120. Heyman MB, Shapiro HA, Thaler MM. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the diagnosis of biliary malformations in infants. Gastrointestinal Endo 1988;34:449–53.
121. Wilkinson ML, Vergani GM, Ball C, Portmann B, Mowat AP. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in infantile cholestasis. Arch Dis Child
122. Shirai Z, Toriya H, Maeshiro K, Ikeda S. The usefulness of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in infants and small children. Am J Gastroenterol
123. Derks HHF, Huibregtse K, Taminiau JAJM. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in cholestatic infants. Endoscopy 1994;26:724–8.
124. Ohnuma N, Takahashi H, Tanabe M, Yoshida H, Iwai J. The role ERCP in biliary atresia. Gastrointest Endosc
125. Ohnuma N, Takahashi H, Tanabe M, Yoshida H, Iwai J. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in biliary tract disease of infants less than one year old. J Exp Med 1997;181:67–74.
126. Iinuma Y, Narisawa R, Iwafuchi M, et al. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in infants with cholestasis. J Pediatr Surg
127. Campbell DP, Poley JR, Alaupovic P. Determination of serum lipoprotein-X for the early differentiation between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. J Surg Res 1975;18:385–90.
128. Witt IV, Ober M. Lipoprotein-X bei neugeborenen: gehauftes auftreten ohne nachweisbare cholestase. [German]J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1976;14:197–202.
129. Poley JR, Caplan DB, Magnani HN, et al. Quantitative changes of serum lipoprotein-X after cholestyramine administration in infants with cholestatic biliary tract and liver disease. Eur J Clin Invest 1978;8:397–404.
130. Kruiswijk T, Holtkamp HC, Diaz D, Seidel B, Szakaly M. The relevance of some laboratory tests in the diagnosis of cholestasis and the differentiation between intra- and extrahepatic obstruction. Clin Chim Acta 1981;112:285–91.
131. Yakabe S, Ikeda K, Ohgami H, Nakagawara A, Matsuo S, Yae Y. Clinical significance of lipoprotein-X in congenital biliary atresia. RZ Kinderchir 1984;39:168–70.
132. Tawawa Y. Lipoprotein-X and diagnosis of biliary atresia. Eur J Pediatr 1987;46:312–313.
133. Detysch J. Lipoprotein X, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and biliary atresia. Eur J Pediatr 1987;46:313–4.
134. Chiou SS, Huang BL, Jaw TS. Serum lipoprotein profiles in infantile cholestas. [Chinese]Chung-135. Hua Min Kuo Hsiao ErH K O I Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih 1988;3:174–9.
135. Bojanovski M, Lukermann R, Schultz-Falthen J, Sturm E, Burdelski M, Bojanovski D. Parameters of lipoprotein metabolism and cholestatic infants and children. Prog Lipid Res
This article has been cited 37 time(s).
Journal of Pediatric SurgeryAnalysis of clinical parameters that contribute to the misdiagnosis of biliary atresiaJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Pediatric RadiologyPhenobarbital-enhanced hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of biliary atresia: two decades of experience at a tertiary centerPediatric Radiology
Journal of Paediatrics and Child HealthOutcome of hepatobiliary scanning: preterm versus full-term cholestatic infantsJournal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Early Human DevelopmentEarly detection of minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions at age 6 months in prematurely born neonatesEarly Human Development
Diagnostic role of US for biliary atresia
Canadian Family Physician
Early diagnosis of neonatal cholestatic jaundice Test at 2 weeks
Canadian Family Physician, 55():
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Comparison of different diagnostic methods in infants with cholestasis
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12():
Pediatrics in Review
Screening and treatment in older infants and children
Pediatrics in Review, 28(3):
Acta PaediatricaNeonatal cholestasis: differentiation of biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis in a developing countryActa Paediatrica
Journal of Pediatric SurgeryCholestasis associated with small bowel atresia: do we always need to investigate?Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Seminars in PerinatologyNeonatal cholestasisSeminars in Perinatology
Nuklearmedizin-Nuclear MedicineTc-99m sestamibi imaging Can it be a useful substitute for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in infantile jaundice?Nuklearmedizin-Nuclear Medicine
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Congenital cholestatic syndromes: What happens when children grow up?
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 21():
Journal of Gastroenterology and HepatologyHistopathological features and accuracy for diagnosing biliary atresia by prelaparotomy liver biopsy in developing countriesJournal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Acta PaediatricaCholestasis in neonatal intensive care unit: incidence, aetiology and managementActa Paediatrica
Clinical ImagingComparison of different diagnostic methods for differentiating biliary atresia from idiopathic neonatal hepatitisClinical Imaging
Journal of Paediatrics and Child HealthPre-admission consultation and late referral in infants with neonatal cholestasisJournal of Paediatrics and Child Health
World Journal of GastroenterologyAnalysis of the histologic features in the differential diagnosis of intrahepatic neonatal cholestasisWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
World Journal of GastroenterologyUsefulness of a scoring system in the interpretation of histology in neonatal cholestasisWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Inspissated Bile Syndrome in a Neonate Treated With Cefotaxime Sonographic Aid to Diagnosis, Management, and Follow-up
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 28(4):
Neonatal liver disease
Pediatric Annals, 35(4):
RadiologyBiliary Atresia: Color Doppler US Findings in Neonates and InfantsRadiology
Journal of HepatologyEndoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography prior to explorative laparotomy avoids unnecessary surgery in patients suspected for biliary atresiaJournal of Hepatology
Jornal De PediatriaDifferential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis: clinical and laboratory parametersJornal De Pediatria
HepatologyScreening and outcomes in biliary atresia: Summary of a National Institutes of Health workshopHepatology
Archives of Disease in ChildhoodThe significance of isolated elevation of serum aminotransferases in infants and young childrenArchives of Disease in Childhood
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
The Sensitvity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Stool Color test, Triangular Cord Sign and Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in Diagnosis of Infantile Biliary Atresia
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 11(4):
ElectrophoresisMicrochip capillary electrophoresis for frontal analysis of free bilirubin and study of its interaction with human serum albuminElectrophoresis
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Healthalpha 1-Antitrypsin deficiency is not an important cause of childhood liver diseases in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian populationJournal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Journal of Gastroenterology and HepatologyPathologic diagnosis of biliary atresia on liver biopsy: is tissue the issue?Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Journal of Pediatric SurgeryUse of transanastomotic feeding tubes during esophageal atresia repairJournal of Pediatric Surgery
World Journal of GastroenterologyCytomegalovirus frequency in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis determined by serology, histology, immunohistochemistry and PCRWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Journal of Clinical GastroenterologyPrenatal Exposure to Methamphetamine Presenting as Neonatal CholestasisJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Journal of Clinical GastroenterologyBiliary Atresia: Recent ProgressJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and NutritionCitrin Deficiency: Learn More, and Don't Forget to Add It to the List of Neonatal Cholestasis and the NASH Trash BinJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and NutritionSafety of Percutaneous Liver Biopsy in Infants Less than Three Months OldJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
© 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.
Readers Of this Article Also Read