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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition:
Original Articles

Analysis of Intestinal Flora Development in Breast-Fed and Formula-Fed Infants by Using Molecular Identification and Detection Methods

Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Wildeboer–Veloo, Alida C. M.; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Wagendorp, Arjen A.*; Klijn, Nicolette*; Bindels, Jacques G.†; Welling, Gjalt W.

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Author Information

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, Groningen; *NIZO Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research, Ede; and †Numico Research B. V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

Received May 11, 1999;

revised July 8 and September 3, 1999; accepted September 10, 1999.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Hermie J. M. Harmsen, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

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Background: An obvious difference between breast-fed and formula-fed newborn infants is the development of the intestinal flora, considered to be of importance for protection against harmful micro-organisms and for the maturation of the intestinal immune system. In this study, novel molecular identification methods were used to verify the data obtained by traditional culture methods and to validate the culture independent fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique.

Methods: From each of six breast-fed and six formula-fed newborn infants, six fecal samples were obtained during the first 20 days of life. The microbial compositions of the samples were analyzed by culturing on specific media and by FISH, by using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. The colonies growing on the media were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern analysis and by polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

Results: Molecular identification of the colonies showed that the selective media are insufficiently selective and unsuitable for quantitative analyses. Qualitative information from the culturing results combined with the data obtained by the FISH technique revealed initial colonization in all infants of a complex (adult-like) flora. After this initial colonization, a selection of bacterial strains began in all infants, in which Bifidobacterium strains played an important role. In all breast-fed infants, bifidobacteria become dominant, whereas in most formula-fed infants similar amounts of Bacteroides and bifidobacteria (∼40%) were found. The minor components of the fecal samples from breast-fed infants were mainly lactobacilli and streptococci; samples from formula-fed infants often contained staphylococci, Escherichia coli, and clostridia.

Conclusions: This study confirms the differences in development of intestinal flora between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. The results obtained from the FISH technique were consistent. Although the repertoire of probes for this study was not yet complete, the FISH technique will probably become the method of reference for future studies designed to develop breast-fed–like intestinal flora in formula-fed infants.

One of the major differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants is the development of the intestinal flora (1–11). Initial colonization of the aseptic intestine of the newborn under normal circumstances happens during delivery when it comes in contact with the vaginal flora of the mother and the normal flora of the parents. This leads to an inoculation with a diverse flora of bifidobacteria, enterobacteria, Bacteroides, clostridia, and Gram-positive cocci (1,12). After this first inoculation, the flora changes rapidly, presumably under the influence of diet. In the infants fed with solely human breast milk, within a few weeks a flora is established that is dominated by bifidobacteria, possibly caused by selective agents (bifidobacterial factors) that are present in human milk (11). Only after weaning does the flora become more diverse and begin to resemble that of adults (1). In contrast, formula-fed infants develop a more diverse flora, consisting, in addition to bifidobacteria, also of Bacteroides, enterobacteria, enterococci, and clostridia (1,7,12). In addition to the obvious influence of early diet, other factors also may influence the flora development such as method of delivery and hygiene (2,4,13).

Several investigators have speculated that the difference in intestinal flora between breast-and formula-fed infants contributes to the functional benefits that breast-feeding has over formula-feeding—that is, protection against gastrointestinal infections (14) and induction of oral tolerance to dietary allergens (15). Therefore, it is obvious that one of the goals for improvement of current infant formulas is to achieve an intestinal flora with formula feeding that is identical with that in breast-fed infants.

The difficulty in accurately assessing the gut flora from fecal samples is one of the major handicaps in the studies on the effects of early diet on the development of the intestinal flora. Most of the enumeration of the different groups of bacteria in these studies is accomplished by culturing on specific media. However, it is clear that culture techniques are hampered because certain bacterial species cannot be cultured (16) and because most media used for quantification of the groups are nonspecific (17). Alternative methods for reliable identification and detection of microorganisms are based on the molecular detection of 16S rRNA or its encoding gene (18). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene directly from colonies found on agar plates, followed by sequence analysis, makes it possible to identify these colonies without further culture steps (19). Furthermore, specific 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide probes have been developed that detect different groups of bacteria directly in fecal samples by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), without further cultivation (20–22).

In this study, we investigated the development of the fecal flora in six breast-fed and six formula-fed infants during the first 20 days after birth, by using these molecular techniques. Although our results confirm the major conclusions from the previous studies in which conventional plating techniques were used, the new molecular identification and detection methods provide more accurate and additional data on the diversity, dynamics, and succession of bacterial strains after the initial colonization of the neonatal gut.

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Study Group and Sample Collection

Mothers were approached for participation in the study by U-Gene (Utrecht, The Netherlands). Those intending to breast feed their infants during the first 20 days of life were eligible for the breast-feeding group, and mothers intending to bottle feed their infants immediately after birth were eligible for the formula-feeding group. To prevent possible variability in the intestinal flora of the formula-fed group caused by composition-related differences among the formulas, only infants were included whose mothers decided to use the whey-predominant infant formula Nutrilon Premium (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, The Netherlands). The study included 12 infants: 6 breast-fed and 6 formula-fed. The children were mostly born at home or polyclinically, which means they were in the hospital for only 1 or 2 days. The mothers were asked to collect fecal material on day 3 or 4, day 4 or 5, day 5 or 6, day 6 or 7, day 8 or 9, day 12 or 13, and day 20 or 21 after the birth of the infant. These samples were collected and reduced in 20 ml 0.5% cysteine-HCl (pH 7.0). The samples were stored at 4°C and transported to NIZO Dairy Research. The samples were processed within 24 hours after collection.

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Culturing on Selective Media

The weight of the fecal samples added to 20 ml cysteine-HCl was determined, and dilution series were made of the samples under anaerobic conditions using an anaerobic cabinet (Coy, Laboratory Products, Ann Arbor, MI, U.S.A.). The samples were analyzed using the selective media described in Table 1. All plates were incubated for 5 days at 37°C under anaerobic conditions, after which the colonies were counted. The colonies found on the different selective media were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and 16S rRNA sequence analysis (19). This molecular-based identification was chosen instead of biochemical characterization for two reasons: First, the identification of bacteria based on biochemical characteristics has been shown not to be fully reliable (23). Second, biochemical characterization of more than 2,500 isolates is too laborious to perform.

Table 1
Table 1
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Identification of the Colonies

From all samples 20 to 30 colonies were randomly selected from all selective plates (three to five isolates per plate) and analyzed by RAPD fingerprinting. In this way, all isolates were classified into groups with similar RAPD patterns. RAPD patterns were generated using the following primer: 5`-GTCGTTATGCGGTA-3`. The RAPD patterns were compared per infant using Phoretix version 3.0 (Nonlinian Dynamics, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK).

Isolates with the same RAPD patterns were grouped, and one or two representatives of each of these groups were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. This identification of species was achieved by amplification and sequencing the first part of the 16S rRNA (19). The sequences were compared to those present in the database of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) (24). Most RAPD groups were identified, with more than 99% identity with sequences of species present in the RDP database. Some of them showed less identity (between 95% and 99%) with known sequences. In those cases, only the genus name of the closest relative was used, followed by the suffix sp.

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Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Analysis

The fecal samples of six breast-fed and six formula-fed infants were fixed, using a 0.5-ml sample in cysteine-HCl storage buffer and 4.5 ml 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These samples were stored at −80°C. Before analysis, the samples were transferred and concentrated into 1200 μl 50% ethanol in PBS. Depending on the amount of cells in the sample, part of the ethanol/PBS stock (usually 20 μl) was hybridized with group-specific fluorescent 16S rRNA–targeted oligonucleotide probes or stained with 4`,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for total cell counts, as described before (21). The probes used in the study are listed in Table 2. For hybridizations with the Lab158 probe the samples were pretreated with lysozyme and lipase to permeabilize the Gram-positive cell wall, as described elsewhere (22). Subsequently, samples were washed and filtered on a 0.22-μm pore size filter, mounted in Vectashield (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, U.S.A.) on microscope slides, and enumerated using epifluorescent microscopy. Ten to 25 fields with a total of approximately 300 positive cells were counted for each sample.

Table 2
Table 2
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Culturing on Selective Media

The bacterial population of the collected fecal samples was enumerated on nine different selective media. Generally, the log numbers from the total counts enumerated on the Colombia blood agar medium increased during the first days after birth from 9.5 to 10.1, and then to 10.4 to 11.3 after 2 weeks. On all of the specific media high counts were reached after 8 or 9 days. Table 1 shows the number of colony-forming units from the samples of breast-fed infant 4 cultivated on the different selective media. These data show a trend that was representative for the plate counts of the floras of the other infants. To analyze the biodiversity of the culturable fraction, 20 to 30 colonies representing the dominant flora were randomly selected from the different selective media and analyzed by RAPD–PCR fingerprinting. This showed that the main flora of the formula-and breast-fed children consisted of 10 to 20 different RAPD groups. Subsequent 16S rRNA sequence analysis of representatives of the RAPD groups resulted in a species identification. Table 3 shows that the media used were selective; however, unwanted species also grew on the different media. Furthermore, species such as Bifidobacterium spp, which were dominant in the samples, grew on most of the selective media. The species isolated from the fecal microflora from all 12 children are listed in Table 4. This table shows that bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli belong to the dominant normal flora isolated from the samples of either group of infants. Also enterococci, staphylococci, Bacteroides, and Veillonella could be isolated from both groups. From breast-fed infants more lactic acid bacteria were isolated, whereas from formula-fed infant feces, more clostridia and Bacteroides were isolated.

Table 3
Table 3
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Table 4
Table 4
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Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Analysis

From each infant, six or seven fecal samples were analyzed by FISH, with three exceptions: the samples of the second and the last breast-fed infant and of the first formula-fed infant. Some of the samples of these infants did not contain enough biomass to be measured accurately. Figure 1 shows the flora development in the breast-fed infants measured by FISH, using the specific oligonucleotides. The relative numbers of the bacterial groups found in the samples are relative to the total number of cells counted after DAPI staining of the cells. Diverse flora was detected in the fecal samples obtained during the first days. Average bifidobacterial numbers were below 40%. Bacteroides counts ranged from 0% to 80% and E. coli numbers ranged from 0% to 30%. After this beginning, all bacterial floras became dominated by bifidobacteria, which make up from 60% to 91% of the flora between days 12 and 20. The flora of the first infant was dominated by bifidobacteria from the first day on. The first sample from infant 2 is missing, and the sample of day 5 shows flora apparently already dominated by bifidobacteria. This infant had a peak of streptococci of 16% on day 7 followed by an increase of E. coli with a maximum of 32% on day 12. Infant 4 had an increase of Bacteroides up to 11% beginning approximately at day 12, which coincides with a small peak of streptococci (9%) and a decrease in the bifidobacteria population.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
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Figure 2 shows the flora development of the formula-fed infants. In these infants initial flora similar to that of breast-fed infants was seen. In these cases, however, the bifidobacteria did not become as dominant in the following days as was seen in breast-fed infants. Their relative numbers ranged from 28% to 75%, with an average of approximately 50%. An exceptional flora was established in the last formula-fed infant in whom the relative numbers of bifidobacteria decreased below the detection limits of 0.01% of the total flora. In most fecal samples of the formula-fed infants the Bacteroides populations decreased after the high initial relative numbers and increased again toward day 20, ranging at that time from 35% to 61%. Only in the third formula-fed infant did the Bacteroides numbers decrease to 1%, which coincides with an increase in E. coli numbers up to 24%. In the remaining formula-fed infant floras, the relative E. coli numbers slowly decreased from approximately 40% in the first sample to approximately 5% in the last.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2
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In the fecal samples of both groups the relative numbers of streptococci and lactococci varied from 0% to 7.5%, with one peak of 16% in breast-fed infant 2, as mentioned. Clostridia belonging to the Clostridium histolyticum/C. lituseburense group, including C. perfringens and C. difficile, were measured with the His150/Lit135 probes. Cells of this group were detected in some of the samples, but the numbers did not exceed 1%, except in the sample of day 12 of the second breast-fed infant in which 2.2% was measured. This coincided with the E. coli peak on that day. Lactobacilli and enterococci were usually detected in the samples of the first days varying from 0% to 4.6%. After this beginning, the relative numbers did not exceed 0.7%.

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In this study, two new approaches were used to evaluate the development of gut microflora in newborn infants. Culturing on specific media and molecular identification of the growing colonies demonstrated the succession of species and the species diversity of the microflora of the two groups of newborns. The results also revealed that culturing cannot result in reliable counts, because the plates chosen for their selectivity were actually not selective. The FISH analysis with the specific probes provided quantitative data on the relative amounts of the different bacterial groups. The results from this new method confirmed the dominance of bifidobacteria and the dynamics of mainly Bacteroides and E. coli.

Although the counts on the selective plate were not useful to compare with the FISH data, for most of the species found in a particular sample by cultivation and sequence identification, the corresponding bacterial groups were usually also found by FISH analysis of the same sample. The exception to this was Bacteroides. For example in the first formula-fed infant, Bacteroides made up approximately 50% of the population. However, it was never cultured from the feces of this child, despite the good anaerobic transport and culture techniques. Either the sample had stayed too long in the aerobic diaper, or the Bacteroides species in this population were not able to grow on the media that were used. A comparison of the diversity of species cultured from samples with that of the probes used in the FISH is only possible to a limited extent, because probes for a few groups were not yet available. A probe (Erec482) for the C. coccoides/Eubacterium rectale group has recently become available (21). This group represents 29% of the adult fecal flora and should be incorporated in the next study. Interestingly, Table 4 shows that clostridia belonging to this group were only present in the flora of formula-fed infants. Therefore, low numbers can be expected with the Erec482 probe in breast-fed infants, whereas in formula-fed infants, higher numbers up to 30% may be present. Probes for C. innocuum and relatives, Veillonella, Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium and other probes are currently being designed and validated, and all these probes will be included in future studies.

The results obtained, confirm other studies in which the colonization of the intestine of newborn breast-fed and formula-fed infants are compared (1,3,5,7,10,11). In all these studies bifidobacteria became the dominant bacteria (>60%) within 1 week after birth when the newborn was fed with breast milk. Formula-fed infants showed development of a more diverse flora. Remarkably, in this study, the FISH results show that the number of Bacteroides cells equaled the number of bifidobacteria in formula-fed infants, whereas in the culture-based studies mentioned earlier the Bacteroides numbers remained 100-to 1000-fold lower. This clearly indicates that there is a problem in culturing this group of anaerobic bacteria, which can lead to large biases. In contrast, other researchers describe no significant differences between both regimens and note a flora with Bacteroides as dominant group. However, in these cases the numbers of cultured bifidobacteria are remarkably low, suggesting a problem in culturing of bifidobacteria (2,4,9). Other groups of organisms that are difficult to culture could have been overlooked. Besides bifidobacteria and Bacteroides, in breast-fed infants mostly lactic acid bacteria, such as streptococci and lactobacilli, are found, whereas formula-fed infants possess a flora with more staphylococci and clostridia. This could be an effect of pH, because earlier studies show that the stool of breast-fed infants has a lower pH than that of formula-fed infants (5).

The formula used in this study was a whey-predominant formula with a rather low protein content (1.4 g/100 ml) and is considered to be the closest to breast milk currently available in The Netherlands. However, our results indicate that the intestinal colonization of formula-fed infants continues to follow a different pattern than that in breast-fed infants. There have been many attempts to improve infant formulas to induce colonization more similar to that in breast-fed infants (1–11,29). These attempts have included searching for an optimal casein:whey protein ratio (5,8) and the addition of lactoferrin (10) or nucleotides (29). However, so far, no such formula inducing breast milk–like colonization exists.

Our results may stimulate new ideas on formula milk development such as the addition of probiotic lactic acid-producing bacteria. The first attempts, such as the addition of Bifidobacterium LW420 (30) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (31) to infant formula are promising. The indication that the latter organism is able to promote endogenous barrier mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis provides a link between intestinal flora and modulation of the mucosal immune system. With the novel molecular identification and detection methods, it will be possible to investigate colonization of nonmaternal species, which has been suggested to play a role in the later development of atopy (15,32).

In conclusion, the molecular 16S rRNA-based techniques used in this study provide more accurate quantitative data on gut flora development in newborns than do conventional culture techniques, although the results of both techniques show the same trends. These novel molecular methods are well suited for testing the effect of improved infant milk formulations and for analyzing the results of desired and undesired flora modulation in infants by antibiotics or prebiotics and probiotics.

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Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children
Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Evolution, Structures and Bioselectivity as Substrates for Intestinal Bacteria
German, JB; Freeman, SL; Lebrilla, CB; Mills, DA
Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children, 62(): 205-222.

Food Policy
Infant formula preparation by rural and semi-rural women in South Africa
Dorosko, S; Rollins, N
Food Policy, 28(2): 117-130.
American Journal of Veterinary Research
Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs
Baillon, MLA; Marshall-Jones, ZV; Butterwick, RF
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65(3): 338-343.

Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiota composition of the intestinal mucosa: Association with fecal microbiota?
Ouwehand, AC; Salminen, S; Arvola, T; Ruuska, T; Isolauri, E
Microbiology and Immunology, 48(7): 497-500.

International Journal of Epidemiology
Commentary: Remembrance of microbes past
Tannock, GW
International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(1): 13-15.

Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents - physiological effects and clinical benefits
Picard, C; Fioramonti, J; Francois, A; Robinson, T; Neant, F; Matuchansky, C
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 22(6): 495-512.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Macrolide resistance mediated by a Bifidobacterium breve membrane protein
Margolles, A; Moreno, JA; van Sinderen, D; Reyes-Gavilan, CGD
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 49(): 4379-4381.
Annual Review of Microbiology
Probiotic and Gut Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria: Molecular Approaches to Study Diversity and Activity
Kleerebezem, M; Vaughan, EE
Annual Review of Microbiology, 63(): 269-290.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Distribution of In Vitro Fermentation Ability of Lacto-N-Biose I, a Major Building Block of Human Milk Oligosaccharides, in Bifidobacterial Strains
Xiao, JZ; Takahashi, S; Nishimoto, M; Odamaki, T; Yaeshima, T; Iwatsuki, K; Kitaoka, M
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(1): 54-59.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Perinatal nutrition and immunity to infection
Jones, KDJ; Berkley, JA; Warner, JO
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 21(4): 564-576.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
New three-stage in vitro model for infant colonic fermentation with immobilized fecal microbiota
Cinquin, C; Le Blay, G; Fliss, I; Lacroix, C
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 57(2): 324-336.
Clinical Nutrition
The intestinal bacterial colonisation in preterm infants: A review of the literature
Westerbeek, EAM; van den Berg, A; Lafeber, HN; Knol, J; Fetter, WPF; van Elburg, RM
Clinical Nutrition, 25(3): 361-368.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Probiotics: Use in allergic disorders - A nutrition, allergy, mucosal immunology, and intestinal microbiota (NAMI) research group report
Isolauri, E; Salminen, S
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 42(6): S91-S96.

Genes and Nutrition
Genes involved in obesity: Adipocytes, brain and microflora
Macia, L; Viltart, O; Verwaerde, C; Delacre, M; Delanoye, A; Grangette, C; Wolowczuk, I
Genes and Nutrition, 1(): 189-212.

Journal of Nutrition
Cesarean delivery may affect the early biodiversity of intestinal bacteria
Biasucci, G; Benenati, B; Morelli, L; Bessi, E; Boehm, G
Journal of Nutrition, 138(9): 1796S-1800S.

Biochemical Journal
The regulation of intestinal mucin MUC2 expression by short-chain fatty acids: implications for epithelial protection
Burger-van Paassen, N; Vincent, A; Puiman, PJ; van der Sluis, M; Bouma, J; Boehm, G; van Goudoever, JB; Van Seuningen, I; Renes, IB
Biochemical Journal, 420(): 211-219.
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
Prebiotic oligosaccharides in infant nutrition: effects on intestinal flora
Boehm, G; Fanaro, S; Moro, G; Knol, J; Arslanoglu, S; Mosca, F; Stahl, B
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 15(5): 14-16.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
The delivery of probiotics and prebiotics to infants
Kullen, MJ; Bettler, J
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 11(1): 55-74.

Late-onset septicemia in a Norwegian national cohort of extremely premature infants receiving very early full human milk feeding
Ronnestad, A; Abrahamsen, TG; Medbo, S; Reigstad, H; Lossius, K; Kaaresen, PI; Egeland, T; Engelund, IE; Irgens, LM; Markestad, T
Pediatrics, 115(3): E269-E276.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Fecal microbiota composition and frailty
van Tongeren, SP; Slaets, JPJ; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(): 6438-6442.
American Journal of Veterinary Research
Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM13241 as a probiotic in healthy adult cats
Marshall-Jones, ZV; Baillon, MLA; Croft, JM; Butterwick, RF
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 67(6): 1005-1012.

Clinical Pediatrics
Probiotics in primary care pediatrics
Cabana, MD; Shane, AL; Chao, C; Oliva-Hemker, M
Clinical Pediatrics, 45(5): 405-410.
Acta Paediatrica
Management of isolated rectal bleeding in newborn infants: comparison of two time periods
Maayan-Metzger, A; Schushan-Eisen, I; Kuint, J
Acta Paediatrica, 99(2): 215-218.
Clinics in Perinatology
Improving the Use of Human Milk During and After the NICU Stay
Meier, PP; Engstrom, JL; Patel, AL; Jegier, BJ; Bruns, NE
Clinics in Perinatology, 37(1): 217-+.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Probiotic agents and infectious diseases: A modern perspective on a traditional therapy
Alvarez-Olmos, MI; Oberhelman, RA
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 32(): 1567-1576.

Gastroenterologie Clinique Et Biologique
Molecular analysis of the intestinal microflora
Dore, J; Rigottier-Gois, L
Gastroenterologie Clinique Et Biologique, 25(): C74-C78.

Best Practice & Research in Clinical Gastroenterology
Isolauri, E; Salminen, S; Ouwehand, AC
Best Practice & Research in Clinical Gastroenterology, 18(2): 299-313.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
The first prebiotics in humans - Human milk oligosaccharides
Coppa, GV; Bruni, S; Morelli, L; Soldi, S; Gabrielli, O
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 38(6): S80-S83.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Modulation of the maturing gut barrier and microbiota: A novel target in allergic disease
Isolauri, E; Kalliomaki, M; Laitinen, K; Salminen, S
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 14(): 1368-1375.

Fems Microbiology Letters
Specific probiotic strains and their combinations counteract adhesion of Enterobacter sakazakii to intestinal mucus
Collado, MC; Isolauri, E; Salminen, S
Fems Microbiology Letters, 285(1): 58-64.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
In vitro effects of selected synbiotics on the human faecal microbiota composition
Saulnier, DMA; Gibson, GR; Kolida, S
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 66(3): 516-527.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome
Sela, DA; Chapman, J; Adeuya, A; Kim, JH; Chen, F; Whitehead, TR; Lapidus, A; Rokhsar, DS; Lebrilla, CB; German, JB; Price, NP; Richardson, PM; Mills, DA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(): 18964-18969.
British Journal of Nutrition
Human milk oligosaccharides - the plot thickens
Donovan, SM
British Journal of Nutrition, 101(9): 1267-1269.
Food and Chemical Toxicology
Safety evaluation of polydextrose in infant formula using a suckling piglet model
Herfel, TM; Jacobi, SK; Lin, X; Walker, DC; Jouni, ZE; Odle, J
Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(7): 1530-1537.
Journal of Nutrition
Effects of a controlled diet and black tea drinking on the fecal microflora composition and the fecal bile acid profile of human volunteers in a double-blinded Randomized feeding study
Mai, V; Katki, HA; Harmsen, H; Gallaher, D; Schatzkin, A; Baer, DJ; Clevidence, B
Journal of Nutrition, 134(2): 473-478.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
The role of breast-feeding in the development of allergies and asthma
Friedman, NJ; Zeiger, RS
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115(6): 1238-1248.
Journal of Immunology
The roles of bacteria and TLR4 in rat and murine models of necrotizing enterocolitis
Jilling, T; Simon, D; Lu, J; Meng, FJ; Li, D; Schy, R; Thomson, RB; Soliman, A; Arditi, M; Caplan, MS
Journal of Immunology, 177(5): 3273-3282.

Molecular Systems Biology
Robustness trade-offs and host-microbial symbiosis in the immune system
Kitano, H; Oda, K
Molecular Systems Biology, 2(): -.
ARTN 2006.0022
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Aspects of infant food formulation
Thompkinson, DK; Kharb, S
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 6(4): 79-102.

Journal of Nutrition
Pediatric applications of inulin and oligofructose
Veereman, G
Journal of Nutrition, 137(): 2585S-2589S.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Exploring the Diversity of the Bifidobacterial Population in the Human Intestinal Tract
Turroni, F; Foroni, E; Pizzetti, P; Giubellini, V; Ribbera, A; Merusi, P; Cagnasso, P; Bizzarri, B; de'Angelis, GL; Shanahan, F; van Sinderen, D; Ventura, M
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(6): 1534-1545.
Bmc Pediatrics
Design of a randomised controlled trial on immune effects of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides in the nutrition of preterm infants: carrot study
Westerbeek, EAM; van Elburg, RM; van den Berg, A; van den Berg, J; Twisk, JWR; Fetter, WPF; Lafeber, HN
Bmc Pediatrics, 8(): -.
Nutrition Reviews
Mass spectrometric methods for analysis of oligosaccharides in human milk
Ninonuevo, MR; Lebrilla, CB
Nutrition Reviews, 67(): S216-S226.
Journal of Proteomics
OMICS-rooted studies of milk proteins, oligosaccharides and lipids
Casado, B; Affolter, M; Kussmann, M
Journal of Proteomics, 73(2): 196-208.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Consumption of Human Milk Oligosaccharides by Gut-Related Microbes
Marcobal, A; Barboza, M; Froehlich, JW; Block, DE; German, JB; Lebrilla, CB; Mills, DA
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(9): 5334-5340.
British Journal of Nutrition
Oligosaccharides in infant formula
Vandenplas, Y
British Journal of Nutrition, 87(): S293-S296.
International Immunopharmacology
A specific prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture stimulates delayed-type hypersensitivity in a murine influenza vaccination model
Vos, AP; Haarman, M; Buco, A; Govers, M; Knol, J; Garssen, J; Stahl, B; Boehm, G; M'Rabet, L
International Immunopharmacology, 6(8): 1277-1286.
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Review article: the intestinal lumen as a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease
Gassull, MA
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 24(): 90-95.

Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Supplementation of infant formula with native inulin has a prebiotic effect in formula-fed babies
Kim, SH; Lee, DH; Meyer, D
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16(1): 172-177.

Plos Biology
Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota
Palmer, C; Bik, EM; DiGiulio, DB; Relman, DA; Brown, PO
Plos Biology, 5(7): 1556-1573.
ARTN e177
Journal of International Medical Research
Probiotics in clinical practice: An overview
Zuccotti, GV; Meneghin, F; Raimondo, C; Dilillo, D; Agostoni, C; Riva, E; Giovannini, M
Journal of International Medical Research, 36(): 1A-53A.

Cereal Foods World
The lifelong benefits of inulin and oligofructose
O'Neill, J
Cereal Foods World, 53(2): 65-68.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
The intestine and its microflora are partners for the protection of the host: report on the Danone Symposium "The Intelligent Intestine," held in Paris, June 14, 2002
Bourlioux, P; Koletzko, B; Guarner, F; Braesco, V
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(4): 675-683.

Journal of Gastroenterology
Gastric electrical activity in normal neonates during the first year of life: effect of feeding with breast milk and formula
Riezzo, G; Castellana, RM; De Bellis, T; Laforgia, F; Indrio, F; Chiloiro, M
Journal of Gastroenterology, 38(9): 836-843.
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde
Modulation of intestinal flora with probiotics and prebiotics
Braegger, CP
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde, 151(): S21-S23.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Prebiotics in infant formulas
Boehm, G; Jelinek, J; Stahl, B; van Laere, K; Knol, J; Fanaro, S; Moro, G; Vigi, V
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 38(6): S76-S79.

Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Bifidobacterial species differentially affect expression of cell surface markers and cytokines of dendritic cells harvested
Young, SL; Simon, MA; Baird, MA; Tannock, GW; Bibiloni, R; Spencely, K; Lane, JM; Fitzharris, P; Crane, J; Town, I; Addo-Yobo, E; Murray, CS; Woodcock, A
Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 11(4): 686-690.
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
New perceptions of the gut microbiota: Implications for future research
Tannock, GW
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 34(3): 361-+.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Infectious diseases in wildlife: the community ecology context
Belden, LK; Harris, RN
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(): 533-539.

Infection and Immunity
Enterobacter sakazakii invasion in human intestinal Caco-2 cells requires the host cell cytoskeleton and is enhanced by disruption of tight junction
Kim, KP; Loessner, MJ
Infection and Immunity, 76(2): 562-570.
Nature Reviews Immunology
Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut
Artis, D
Nature Reviews Immunology, 8(6): 411-420.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Changes in Infants Faecal Characteristics and Microbiota by Inulin Supplementation
Yap, WKW; Mohamed, S; Jamal, MH; Diederick, M; Manap, YA
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 43(3): 159-166.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates
Favier, CF; Vaughan, EE; De Vos, WM; Akkermans, ADL
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(1): 219-226.

Epidemiologic Reviews
Environmental epidemiology of pediatric asthma and allergy
Johnson, CC; Ownby, DR; Zoratti, EM; Alford, SH; Williams, LK; Joseph, CLM
Epidemiologic Reviews, 24(2): 154-175.
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Prebiotic Supplementation in Full-term Neonates - A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Rao, S; Srinivasjois, R; Patole, S
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(8): 755-764.

Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Various effects of different probiotic strains in allergic disorders: an update from laboratory and clinical data
Ozdemir, O
Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 160(3): 295-304.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nondigestible oligosaccharides enhance bacterial colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile in vitro
Hopkins, MJ; Macfarlane, GT
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(4): 1920-1927.
Archives of Disease in Childhood
Probiotics for preterm infants?
Millar, M; Wilks, M; Costeloe, K
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(5): F354-F358.

Trends in Food Science & Technology
The commensal microflora of human milk: new perspectives for food bacteriotherapy and probiotics
Martin, R; Langa, S; Reviriego, C; Jimenez, E; Marin, ML; Olivares, M; Boza, J; Jimenez, J; Fernandez, L; Xaus, J; Rodriguez, JM
Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(): 121-127.
Pediatric Research
Effect of a milk formula with prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota of infants after an antibiotic treatment
Brunser, O; Gotteland, M; Cruchet, S; Figueroa, G; Garrido, D; Steenhout, P
Pediatric Research, 59(3): 451-456.
Necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns - Pathogenesis, prevention and management
Thompson, AM; Bizzarro, MJ
Drugs, 68(9): 1227-1238.

Gi Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System
The commensal microbiology of the gastrointestinal tract
Manson, JM; Rauch, M; Gilmore, MS
Gi Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System, 635(): 15-28.

Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children
Factors Influencing the Establishment of the Intestinal Microbiota in Infancy
Adlerberth, I
Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children, 62(): 13-33.

Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children
Intestinal Immune Health
Conroy, ME; Walker, WA
Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children, 62(): 111-125.

Australian Journal of Dairy Technology
Genomics and milk
German, JB
Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 64(1): 94-101.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Microbiology of the Human Intestinal Tract and Approaches for Its Dietary Modulation
Saulnier, DM; Kolida, S; Gibson, GR
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 15(): 1403-1414.

Journal of Pediatrics
Effect of probiotics and breastfeeding on the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus microbiota and humoral immune responses
Rinne, M; Kalliomaki, M; Arvilommi, H; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
Journal of Pediatrics, 147(2): 186-191.
European Journal of Nutrition
Lupin kernel fiber consumption modifies fecal microbiota in healthy men as determined by rRNA gene fluorescent in situ hybridization
Smith, SC; Choy, R; Johnson, SK; Hall, RS; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Welling, GW
European Journal of Nutrition, 45(6): 335-341.
Journal of Pediatrics
Role of human milk components in gastrointestinal development: Current knowledge and future needs
Donovan, SM
Journal of Pediatrics, 149(5): S49-S61.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy
In vivo and in vitro immunomodulation of Der p 1 allergen-specific response by Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria
Hisbergues, M; Magi, M; Rigaux, P; Steuve, J; Garcia, L; Goudercourt, D; Pot, B; Pestel, J; Jacquet, A
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 37(9): 1286-1295.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Daily variations in oligosaccharides of human milk determined by microfluidic chips and mass spectrometry
Ninonuevo, MR; Perkins, PD; Francis, J; Lamotte, LA; LoCascio, RG; Freeman, SL; Mills, DA; German, JB; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, CB
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(2): 618-626.
Pediatric Research
Understanding the susceptibility of the premature infant to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
Hunter, CJ; Upperman, JS; Ford, HR; Camerini, V
Pediatric Research, 63(2): 117-123.

Journal of International Medical Research
Probiotics, prebiotics and child health: Where are we going?
Salvini, F; Granieri, L; Gemmellaro, L; Giovannini, M
Journal of International Medical Research, 32(2): 97-108.

Nutrition Reviews
Dietary modification of the intestinal microbiota
Mai, V
Nutrition Reviews, 62(6): 235-242.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Quantitative real-time PCR assays to identify and quantify fecal Bifidobacterium species in infants receiving a prebiotic infant formula
Haarman, M; Knol, J
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(5): 2318-2324.
Fems Microbiology Reviews
Diversity, vitality and activities of intestinal lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria assessed by molecular approaches
Vaughan, EE; Heilig, HGHJ; Ben-Amor, K; de Vos, WM
Fems Microbiology Reviews, 29(3): 477-490.
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Probiotics, gut inflammation and barrier function
Isolauri, E; Salminen, S
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 34(3): 437-+.
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Pediatric applications of probiotics
Vanderhoof, JA; Young, RJ
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 34(3): 451-+.

Isme Journal
The immediate environment during postnatal development has long-term impact on gut community structure in pigs
Thompson, CL; Wang, B; Holmes, AJ
Isme Journal, 2(7): 739-748.
Archives of Animal Nutrition
Occurrence of bifidobacteria in faeces of calves fed milk or a combined diet
Vlkova, E; Rada, V; Trojanova, I; Killer, J; Smehilova, M; Molatova, Z
Archives of Animal Nutrition, 62(5): 359-365.
High-throughput diversity and functionality analysis of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota
Zoetendal, EG; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M; de Vos, WM
Gut, 57(): 1605-1615.
Journal of Proteomics
Qualitative and quantitative profiling of the bovine milk fat globule membrane proteome
Affolter, M; Grass, L; Vanrobaeys, F; Casado, B; Kussmann, M
Journal of Proteomics, 73(6): 1079-1088.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
Use of batch culture and a two-stage continuous culture system to study the effect of supplemental alpha-lactalbumin and glycomacropeptide on mixed populations of human gut bacteria
Bruck, WM; Graverholt, G; Gibson, GR
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 41(3): 231-237.
PII S0168-6496(02)00296-9
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum reflects its adaptation to the human gastrointestinal tract
Schell, MA; Karmirantzou, M; Snel, B; Vilanova, D; Berger, B; Pessi, G; Zwahlen, MC; Desiere, F; Bork, P; Delley, M; Pridmore, RD; Arigoni, F
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(): 14422-14427.
Experimental Animals
Development of intestinal microbiota in mice and its possible interaction with the evolution of luminal IgA in the intestine
Inoue, R; Otsuka, M; Ushida, K
Experimental Animals, 54(5): 437-445.

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
The development of mucosal immunity
Teitelbaum, JE; Walker, WA
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 17(): 1273-1278.

World Journal of Gastroenterology
Anti-inflammatory effects of bifidobacteria by inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kappa B activation
Riedel, CU; Foata, F; Philippe, D; Adolfsson, O; Eikmanns, BJ; Blum, S
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12(): 3729-3735.

Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Maternal breast-milk and intestinal bifidobacteria guide the compositional development of the Bifidobacterium microbiota in infants at risk of allergic disease
Gronlund, MM; Gueimonde, M; Laitinen, K; Kociubinski, G; Gronroos, T; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 37(): 1764-1772.
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Probiotics and oral health effects in children
Twetman, S; Stecksen-Blicks, C
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 18(1): 3-10.
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Elective cesarean delivery affects gut maturation and delays microbial colonization but does not increase necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs
Siggers, RH; Thymann, T; Jensen, BB; Molbak, L; Heegaard, PMH; Schmidt, M; Buddington, RK; Sangild, PT
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 294(3): R929-R938.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Extensive set of 16S rRNA-based probes for detection of bacteria in human feces
Harmsen, HJM; Raangs, GC; He, T; Degener, JE; Welling, GW
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(6): 2982-2990.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology
Discovering lactic acid bacteria by genomics
Klaenhammer, T; Altermann, E; Arigoni, F; Bolotin, A; Breidt, F; Broadbent, J; Cano, R; Chaillou, S; Deutscher, J; Gasson, M; van de Guchte, M; Guzzo, J; Hartke, A; Hawkins, T; Hols, P; Hutkins, R; Kleerebezem, M; Kok, J; Kuipers, O; Lubbers, M; Maguin, E; McKay, L; Mills, D; Nauta, A; Overbeek, R; Pel, H; Pridmore, D; Saier, M; van Sinderen, D; Sorokin, A; Steele, J; O'Sullivan, D; de Vos, W; Weimer, B; Zagorec, M; Siezen, R
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, 82(): 29-58.

Gut flora in health and disease
Guarner, F; Malagelada, JR
Lancet, 361(): 512-519.

Acta Paediatrica
Prebiotics in infant milk formulas: new perspectives
Miniello, VL; Moro, GE; Armenio, L
Acta Paediatrica, 92(): 68-76.

Acta Paediatrica
Intestinal microflora in breastfed colicky and non-colicky infants
Savino, F; Cresi, F; Pautasso, S; Palumeri, E; Tullio, V; Roana, J; Silvestro, L; Oggero, R
Acta Paediatrica, 93(6): 825-829.
Journal of Human Lactation
Screening of virulence determinants in Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk
Reviriego, C; Eaton, T; Martin, R; Jimenez, E; Fernandez, L; Gasson, MJ; Rodriguez, JM
Journal of Human Lactation, 21(2): 131-137.
Water Air and Soil Pollution
Ecology, DNA, and the Future of Microbial Source Tracking
Witty, M; Nickels, J; Lisa, J; Tiedemann, J
Water Air and Soil Pollution, 201(): 219-232.
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
Lactobacillus reuteri and infantile colic
Savino, F; Tarasco, V
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 20(3): 37-39.

British Journal of Dermatology
Exclusive breastfeeding and incident atopic dermatitis in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Yang, YW; Tsai, CL; Lu, CY
British Journal of Dermatology, 161(2): 373-383.
Two distinct alpha-l-fucosidases from Bifidobacterium bifidum are essential for the utilization of fucosylated milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates
Ashida, H; Miyake, A; Kiyohara, M; Wada, J; Yoshida, E; Kumagai, H; Katayama, T; Yamamoto, K
Glycobiology, 19(9): 1010-1017.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
The Effect of Bifidobacterium lactis on the Growth of Infants: A Pooled Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies
Steenhout, PG; Rochat, F; Hager, C
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 55(4): 334-340.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis
Gueimonde, M; Florez, AB; van Hoek, AHAM; Stuer-Lauridsen, B; Stroman, P; de los Reyes-Gavilan, CG; Margolles, A
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(): 3364-3369.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
Comparative effects of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria and fructo-oligosaccharides on infant gut microbiota tested in an in vitro colonic model with immobilized cells
Cinquin, C; Le Blay, G; Fliss, I; Lacroix, C
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 57(2): 226-238.
Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Assembly of the human intestinal microbiota
Dethlefsen, L; Eckburg, PB; Bik, EM; Relman, DA
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21(9): 517-523.
Seminars in Immunology
What immunologists should know about bacterial communities of the human bowel
Tannock, GW
Seminars in Immunology, 19(2): 94-105.
Clinical Nutrition
The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal microflora in very low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial
van den Berg, A; van Elburg, RM; Westerbeek, EAM; van der Linde, EGM; Knol, J; Twisk, JWR; Fetter, WPF
Clinical Nutrition, 26(4): 430-439.
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health
Mai, V; Draganov, PV
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15(1): 81-85.
Clinical Nutrition
A formula containing galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents intestinal and extra-intestinal infections: An observational study
Bruzzese, E; Volpicelli, M; Squeglia, V; Bruzzese, D; Salvini, F; Bisceglia, M; Lionetti, P; Cinquetti, M; Iacono, G; Amarri, S; Guarino, A
Clinical Nutrition, 28(2): 156-161.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
Development of the intestinal microbiota in rats and its possible interactions with the evolution of the luminal IgA in the intestine
Inoue, R; Ushida, K
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 45(2): 147-153.
Development of bacterial and bifidobacterial communities in feces of newborn babies
Favier, CF; de Vos, WM; Akkermans, ADL
Anaerobe, 9(5): 219-229.
Acta Paediatrica
Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development
Fanaro, S; Chierici, R; Guerrini, P; Vigi, V
Acta Paediatrica, 92(): 48-55.

Chinese Medical Journal
Supplementation of milk formula with galacto-oligosaccharides improves intestinal micro-flora and fermentation in term infants
Ben, XM; Zhou, XY; Zhao, WH; Yu, WL; Wei, P; Zhang, WL; Wu, SM; Van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A
Chinese Medical Journal, 117(6): 927-931.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Comparison of compositions and metabolic activities of fecal microbiotas in young adults and in antibiotic-treated and non-antibiotic-treated elderly subjects
Woodmansey, EJ; McMurdo, MET; Macfarlane, GT; Macfarlane, S
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(): 6113-6122.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
Characterisation of intestinal bacteria in infant stools using real-time PCR and northern hybridisation analyses
Hopkins, MJ; Macfarlane, GT; Furrie, E; Fite, A; Macfarlane, S
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 54(1): 77-85.
Journal of Pediatrics
Potential Roles and Clinical Utility of Prebiotics in Newborns, Infants, and Children: Proceedings from a Global Prebiotic Summit Meeting, New York City, June 27-28, 2008
Sherman, PM; Cabana, M; Gibson, GR; Koletzko, BV; Neu, J; Veereman-Wauters, G; Ziegler, EE; Walker, WA
Journal of Pediatrics, 155(5): S61-S70.
The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition
Vrieze, A; Holleman, F; Zoetendal, EG; de Vos, WM; Hoekstra, JBL; Nieuwdorp, M
Diabetologia, 53(4): 606-613.
Annual Review of Immunology, Vol 28
Intestinal Bacteria and the Regulation of Immune Cell Homeostasis
Hill, DA; Artis, D
Annual Review of Immunology, Vol 28, 28(): 623-667.
Probiotics: a role in the treatment of intestinal infection and inflammation?
Isolauri, E; Kirjavainen, PV; Salminen, S
Gut, 50(): 54-59.

Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
The bifidobacterial and lactobacillus microflora of humans
Tannock, GW
Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 22(3): 231-253.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Analysis of the intestinal microflora using molecular methods
Tannock, GW
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(): S44-S49.

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Which role for prebiotics at weaning?
Fanaro, S; Vigi, V
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 42(8): S209-S213.

Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the identification of micro-organisms associated with wastewater particles and flocs
Ormeci, B; Linden, KG
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 43(): 1484-1488.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Molecular Ecological Analysis of Fecal Bacterial Populations from Term Infants Fed Formula Supplemented with Selected Blends of Prebiotics
Nakamura, N; Gaskins, HR; Collier, CT; Nava, GM; Rai, D; Petschow, B; Russell, WM; Harris, C; Mackie, RI; Wampler, JL; Walker, DC
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(4): 1121-1128.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Probiotics during weaning reduce the incidence of eczema
West, CE; Hammarstrom, ML; Hernell, O
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 20(5): 430-437.
Growth promotion and cell binding ability of bovine lactoferrin to Bifidobacterium longum
Rahman, MM; Kim, WS; Ito, T; Kumura, H; Shimazaki, K
Anaerobe, 15(4): 133-137.
Nutrition Reviews
Soy formula and isoflavones and the developing intestine
Donovan, SM; Andres, A; Mathai, RA; Kuhlenschmidt, TB; Kuhlenschmidt, MS
Nutrition Reviews, 67(): S192-S200.
Microbial Ecology
Genetic and physiological characterization of the intestinal bacterial microbiota of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) with three different feeding habits
Uchii, K; Matsui, K; Yonekura, R; Tani, K; Kenzaka, T; Nasu, M; Kawabata, Z
Microbial Ecology, 51(3): 277-284.
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
Usefulness of infant formulae supplemented with probiotics or prebiotics?
Waligora-Dupriet, AJ; Campeotto, F; Kalach, N; Dupont, C; Butel, MJ
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 17(2): 56-59.

Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Effects of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation on intestinal microbiota of preterm infants: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study
Mohan, R; Koebnick, C; Schildt, J; Schmidt, S; Mueller, M; Possner, M; Radke, M; Blaut, M
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44(): 4025-4031.
Fems Microbiology Letters
Cell envelope changes in Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis as a response to bile
Ruiz, L; Sanchez, B; Ruas-Madiedo, P; de los Reyes-Gavilan, CG; Margolles, A
Fems Microbiology Letters, 274(2): 316-322.
British Journal of Nutrition
Beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria isolated from breast milk
Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Sierra, S; Rodriguez, JM; Boza, J; Xaus, J
British Journal of Nutrition, 98(): S96-S100.
American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Prebiotic oligosaccharides and the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in rats
van Meer, H; Boehm, G; Stellaard, F; Vriesema, A; Knol, J; Havinga, R; Sauer, PJ; Verkade, HJ
American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 294(2): G540-G547.
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Low level of galacto-oligosaccharide in infant formula stimulates growth of intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli
Ben, XM; Li, J; Feng, ZT; Shi, SY; Lu, YD; Chen, R; Zhou, XY
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 14(): 6564-6568.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Metabolic characteristics of the faecal microflora in humans from three age groups
Andrieux, C; Membre, JM; Cayuela, C; Antoine, JM
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 37(7): 792-798.

Journal of Applied Microbiology
A two-stage continuous culture system to study the effect of supplemental alpha-lactalbumin and glycomacropeptide on mixed cultures of human gut bacteria challenged with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium
Bruck, WM; Graverholt, G; Gibson, GR
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95(1): 44-53.

Fems Microbiology Ecology
Vertical and horizontal transmission of intestinal commensal bacteria in the rat model
Inoue, R; Ushida, K
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 46(2): 213-219.
British Journal of Nutrition
Application of prebiotics in infant foods
Veereman-Wauters, G
British Journal of Nutrition, 93(): S57-S60.
Fems Microbiology Letters
Phytase activity as a novel metabolic feature in Bifidobacterium
Haros, M; Bielecka, M; Sanz, Y
Fems Microbiology Letters, 247(2): 231-239.
Early Human Development
The effect of a prebiotic supplemented formula on growth and stool microbiology of term infants
Costalos, C; Kapiki, A; Apostolou, M; Papathoma, E
Early Human Development, 84(1): 45-49.
Fecal microflora of Greek healthy neonates
Mitsou, EK; Kirtzalidou, E; Oikonomou, I; Liosis, G; Kyriacou, A
Anaerobe, 14(2): 94-101.
Current Molecular Medicine
The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastrointestinal damage
Lutgendorff, F; Akkermans, LMA; Soderholm, JD
Current Molecular Medicine, 8(4): 282-298.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dietary nucleotides and fecal microbiota in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial
Singhal, A; Macfarlane, G; Macfarlane, S; Lanigan, J; Kennedy, K; Elias-Jones, A; Stephenson, T; Dudek, P; Lucas, A
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(6): 1785-1792.

Journal of Applied Microbiology
Dietary glycated protein modulates the colonic microbiota towards a more detrimental composition in ulcerative colitis patients and non-ulcerative colitis subjects
Mills, DJS; Tuohy, KM; Booth, J; Buck, M; Crabbe, MJC; Gibson, GR; Ames, JM
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105(3): 706-714.
Journal of Nutrition
Postnatal development of intestinal microflora as influenced by infant nutrition
Morelli, L
Journal of Nutrition, 138(9): 1791S-1795S.

Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Use of probiotics in pediatrics: Rationale, mechanisms of action, and practicall aspects
Saavedra, JM
Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 22(3): 351-365.

Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Survival of Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 in the faecal microbiota after administration in lyophilised form or in fermented product - A randomised study in healthy adults
Rochet, V; Rigottier-Gois, L; Ledaire, A; Andrieux, C; Sutren, M; Rabot, S; Mogenet, A; Bresson, JL; Cools, S; Picard, C; Goupil-Feuillerat, N; Dore, J
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 14(): 128-136.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
In vitro fermentability of human milk oligosaccharides by several strains of bifidobacteria
Ward, RE; Ninonuevo, M; Mills, DA; Lebrilla, CB; German, JB
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51(): 1398-1405.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Use of Lactobacillus casei subspecies Rhamnosus GG and gastrointestinal colonization by Candida species in preterm neonates
Manzoni, P
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 45(): S190-S194.

Archives of Microbiology
Characterisation of glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (EC and N-acetylglucosamine metabolism in Bifidobacterium
Foley, S; Stolarczyk, E; Mouni, F; Brassart, C; Vidal, O; Aiessi, E; Bouquelet, S; Krzewinski, F
Archives of Microbiology, 189(2): 157-167.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Impact of the intestinal microbiota on the development of mucosal defense
Gaskins, HR; Croix, JA; Nakamura, N; Nava, GM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(): S80-S86.
Acta Paediatrica
Molecular identification of coliform bacteria from colicky breastfed infants
Savino, F; Cordisco, L; Tarasco, V; Calabrese, R; Palumeri, E; Matteuzzi, D
Acta Paediatrica, 98(): 1582-1588.
Bmc Infectious Diseases
Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae
Hurrell, E; Kucerova, E; Loughlin, M; Caubilla-Barron, J; Hilton, A; Armstrong, R; Smith, C; Grant, J; Shoo, S; Forsythe, S
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 9(): -.
ARTN 146
British Journal of Nutrition
Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial
Vlieger, AM; Robroch, A; van Buuren, S; Kiers, J; Rijkers, G; Benninga, MA; Biesebeke, RT
British Journal of Nutrition, 102(6): 869-875.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Species specific identification of nine human Bifidobacterium spp. in feces
Germond, JE; Mamin, O; Mollet, B
Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 25(4): 536-543.

Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
Bacterial colonisation of the infant gut, the influence of diet and its role in health
Edwards, CA
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 17(5): 13-15.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Labeling of Bifidobacterium longum cells with C-13-substituted leucine for quantitative proteomic analyses
Coute, Y; Hernandez, C; Appel, RD; Sanchez, JC; Margolles, A
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(): 5653-5656.
Allergic Diseases and the Environment
Clinical overview: The changing pattern of clinical aspects of allergic diseases
Vandenplas, Y
Allergic Diseases and the Environment, 53(): 1-25.

International Journal of Food Microbiology
Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713, a potential probiotic strain isolated from infant feces and breast milk of a mother-child pair
Martin, R; Jimenez, E; Olivares, M; Marin, ML; Fernandez, L; Xaus, J; Rodriguez, JM
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 112(1): 35-43.
Emerging Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease
Howarth, GS
Emerging Issues in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 151(): 281-295.

Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Molecularly assessed shifts of Bifidobacterium ssp and less diverse microbial communities are characteristic of 5-year-old allergic children
Stsepetove, J; Sepp, E; Julge, K; Vaughan, E; Mikelsaar, M; de Vos, WM
Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 51(2): 260-269.
Clinics in Dermatology
Probiotics and the skin
Caramia, G; Atzei, A; Fanos, V
Clinics in Dermatology, 26(1): 4-11.
Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm infants: A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial
Lin, HC; Hsu, CH; Chen, HL; Chung, MY; Hsu, JF; Lien, RI; Tsao, LY; Chen, CH; Su, BH
Pediatrics, 122(4): 693-700.
Journal of Pediatrics
Human milk is a source of lactic acid bacteria for the infant gut
Martin, R; Langa, S; Reviriego, C; Jimenez, E; Marin, ML; Xaus, J; Fernandez, L; Rodriguez, JM
Journal of Pediatrics, 143(6): 754-758.
Folia Microbiologica
Enumeration, isolation, and identification of bifidobacteria from infant feces
Vlkova, E; Rada, V; Bujnakova, D; Kmet, V
Folia Microbiologica, 49(2): 209-212.

Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol 54
Bacterial diversity in the human gut
Macfarlane, S; Macfarlane, GT
Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol 54, 54(): 261-289.

American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Glucocorticoid responsiveness in developing human intestine: possible role in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis
Nanthakumar, NN; Young, C; Ko, JS; Meng, D; Chen, J; Buie, T; Walker, WA
American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 288(1): G85-G92.
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Racial disparity in infant and maternal mortality: Confluence of infection, and microvascular dysfunction
Fiscella, K
Maternal and Child Health Journal, 8(2): 45-54.

Infections in Medicine
The human indigenous microbial flora in health and disease
Brook, I
Infections in Medicine, 22(6): 259-+.

Probiotics: Are We Ready for Routine Use?
Soll, RF
Pediatrics, 125(5): 1071-1072.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Development of 16S rRNA-based probes for the Coriobacterium group and the Atopobium cluster and their application for enumeration of Coriobacteriaceae in human feces from volunteers of different age groups
Harmsen, HJM; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Grijpstra, J; Knol, J; Degener, JE; Welling, GW
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(): 4523-4527.

Revue Francaise D Allergologie Et D Immunologie Clinique
What's new in pediatric allergology in 2000? Review of the international literature from October 1999 to October 2000
Ponvert, C
Revue Francaise D Allergologie Et D Immunologie Clinique, 41(2): 199-220.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Identification, detection, and enumeration of human Bifidobacterium species by PCR targeting the transaldolase gene
Requena, T; Burton, J; Matsuki, T; Munro, K; Simon, MA; Tanaka, R; Watanabe, K; Tannock, GW
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(5): 2420-2427.
European Journal of Epidemiology
Allergic disease and the pre- and perinatal environment
Behrens, T
European Journal of Epidemiology, 18(8): 739-741.

Acta Paediatrica
Effects of a new mixture of prebiotics on faecal flora and stools in term infants
Moro, GE; Mosca, F; Miniello, V; Fanaro, S; Jelinek, J; Stahl, B; Boehm, G
Acta Paediatrica, 92(): 77-79.

Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion
Effect of infant formula with probiotics on intestinal microbiota
Baldeon, ME; Naranjo, G; Granja, D
Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion, 58(1): 5-11.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bifidobacterium bifidum lacto-N-biosidase, a critical enzyme for the degradation of human milk oligosaccharides with a type 1 structure
Wada, J; Ando, T; Kiyohara, M; Ashida, H; Kitaoka, M; Yamaguchi, M; Kumagai, H; Katayama, T; Yamamoto, K
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(): 3996-4004.
The cell-envelope proteome of Bifidobacterium longum in an in vitro bile environment
Ruiz, L; Coute, Y; Sanchez, B; de los Reyes-Gavilan, CG; Sanchez, JC; Margolles, A
Microbiology-Sgm, 155(): 957-967.
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology
Does Breastfeeding Prevent Atopic Disorders?
Kirsten, GF
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 22(1): 24-26.

Isme Journal
Microbiomic analysis of the bifidobacterial population in the human distal gut
Turroni, F; Marchesi, JR; Foroni, E; Gueimonde, M; Shanahan, F; Margolles, A; van Sinderen, D; Ventura, M
Isme Journal, 3(6): 745-751.
British Journal of Nutrition
Safety of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and Bifidobacterium lactis in term infants: a randomised controlled trial
Gibson, RA; Barclay, D; Marshall, H; Moulin, J; Maire, JC; Makrides, M
British Journal of Nutrition, 101(): 1706-1713.
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Potential uses of probiotics in the neonate
Rautava, S
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 12(1): 45-53.
Journal of Nutrition
Oligosaccharides from milk
Boehm, G; Stahl, B
Journal of Nutrition, 137(3): 847S-849S.

Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Colonization and impact of disease and other factors on intestinal microbiota
Thompson-Chagoyan, OC; Maldonado, J; Gil, A
Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 52(9): 2069-2077.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Effects of galactooligosaccharide and long-chain fructooligosaccharide supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal microbiota and immunity - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Shadid, R; Haarman, M; Knol, J; Theis, W; Beermann, C; Rjosk-Dendorfer, D; Schendel, DJ; Koletzko, BV; Krauss-Etschmann, S
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(5): 1426-1437.

Journal of Cereal Science
Cereal complex carbohydrates and their contribution to human health
Topping, D
Journal of Cereal Science, 46(3): 220-229.
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Breath test for differential diagnosis between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel disease: An observation on non-absorbable antibiotics
Esposito, I; de Leone, A; Di Gregorio, G; Giaquinto, S; de Magistris, L; Ferrieri, A; Riegler, G
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13(): 6016-6021.

Journal of Nutrition
Maternal adaptive immunity influences the intestinal microflora of suckling mice
Diaz, RL; Hoang, L; Wang, JF; Vela, JL; Jenkins, S; Aranda, R; Martin, MG
Journal of Nutrition, 134(9): 2359-2364.

Let them fly or light them up: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
Schweickert, B; Moter, A; Lefmann, M; Gobel, UB
Apmis, 112(): 856-885.

Journal of Food Protection
Production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory compounds by human fecal Bifidobacterium strains
Collado, MC; Hernandez, M; Sanz, Y
Journal of Food Protection, 68(5): 1034-1040.

Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Bifidobacterial lipoglycan as a new cause for false-positive Platelia Aspergillus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity
Mennink-Kersten, MAS; Ruegebrink, D; Klont, RR; Warris, A; Gavini, F; den Camp, HJMO; Verweij, PE
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 43(8): 3925-3931.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri
Ward, RE; Ninonuevo, M; Mills, DA; Lebrilla, CB; German, JB
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(6): 4497-4499.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A strategy for annotating the human milk glycome
Ninonuevo, MR; Park, Y; Yin, HF; Zhang, JH; Ward, RE; Clowers, BH; German, JB; Freeman, SL; Killeen, K; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, CB
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(): 7471-7480.
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Specific problotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season
Ouwehand, AC; Nermes, M; Collado, MC; Rautonen, N; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15(): 3261-3268.
European Journal of Pediatrics
Tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strains are inherited from parents and persist in the infant's intestines in the absence of selective pressure
Prelog, M; Grif, K; Decristoforo, C; Wurzner, R; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U; Brunner, A; Zimmerhackl, LB; Orth, D
European Journal of Pediatrics, 168(): 1181-1187.
Breastfeeding Medicine
Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Founder's Lecture 2008: Breastfeeding-An Extrauterine Link Between Mother and Child
Rautava, S; Walker, WA
Breastfeeding Medicine, 4(1): 4-12.
Journal of Nutrition
Colonic bacterial flora: Changing understandings in the molecular age
Mai, V; Morris, JG
Journal of Nutrition, 134(2): 459-464.

Fems Microbiology Letters
Acquired resistance to bile increases fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity in Bifidobacterium
Sanchez, B; Noriega, L; Ruas-Madiedo, P; de los Reyes-Gavilan, CG; Margolles, A
Fems Microbiology Letters, 235(1): 35-41.
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech
Infant formula supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides: Closer to the reference
Miniello, VL; Francavilla, R; Straziuso, S; Franco, C; Gagliardi, F; Armenio, L
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 15(2): 42-44.

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Molecular epidemiology of Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal department: a 2-year surveillance study
Gbaguidi-Haore, H; Talon, D; Thouverez, M; Menget, A; Bertrand, X
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 27(8): 643-648.
Journal of Nutrition
Nutritional factors influencing infections in preterm infants
Lafeber, HN; Westerbeek, EAM; van den Berg, A; Fetter, WPF; van Elburg, RM
Journal of Nutrition, 138(9): 1813S-1817S.

Bmc Microbiology
Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants
Jimenez, E; Delgado, S; Maldonado, A; Arroyo, R; Albujar, M; Garcia, N; Jariod, M; Fernandez, L; Gomez, A; Rodriguez, JM
Bmc Microbiology, 8(): -.
ARTN 143
Archives De Pediatrie
Intestinal flora: a world living to be preserved
Goulet, O
Archives De Pediatrie, 16(): 1-6.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension as a Time- and Cost-Effective Approach for Quantitative Determination of Bifidobacterium spp. in Infant Feces
Hong, PY; Yap, GC; Lee, BW; Chua, KY; Liu, WT
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(8): 2573-2576.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mixed-Species Genomic Microarray Analysis of Fecal Samples Reveals Differential Transcriptional Responses of Bifidobacteria in Breast- and Formula-Fed Infants
Klaassens, ES; Boesten, RJ; Haarman, M; Knol, J; Schuren, FH; Vaughan, EE; de Vos, WM
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(9): 2668-2676.
Microbes and Infection
Lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota of Swedish infants
Ahrne, S; Lonnermark, E; Wold, AE; Aberg, N; Hesselmar, B; Saalman, R; Strannegard, IL; Molin, G; Adlerberth, I
Microbes and Infection, 7(): 1256-1262.
Journal of Microbiological Methods
Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens species detected in infant faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA targeted probes
Fallani, M; Rigottier-Gois, L; Aguilera, M; Bridonneau, C; Collignon, A; Edwards, CA; Corthier, G; Dore, J
Journal of Microbiological Methods, 67(1): 150-161.
Two membrane proteins from Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 constitute an ABC-type multidrug transporter
Margolles, A; Florez, AB; Moreno, JA; van Sinderen, D; de los Reyes-Gavilan, CG
Microbiology-Sgm, 152(): 3497-3505.
Isme Journal
Inter-species transplantation of gut microbiota from human to pigs
Pang, XY; Hua, XG; Yang, Q; Ding, DH; Che, CY; Cui, L; Jia, W; Bucheli, P; Zhao, LP
Isme Journal, 1(2): 156-162.
British Journal of Nutrition
Lactobacillus casei Shirota administered during lactation increases the duration of autoimmunity in rats and enhances lung inflammation in mice
Ezendam, J; van Loveren, H
British Journal of Nutrition, 99(1): 83-90.
Seminars in Perinatology
Probiotics: Role in pathophysiology and prevention in necrotizing enterocolitis
Martin, CR; Walker, WA
Seminars in Perinatology, 32(2): 127-137.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
Any benefits of probiotics in allergic disorders?
Ozdemir, O
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 31(2): 103-111.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Breastfeeding and the development of atopic disease during childhood
Bottcher, MF; Jenmalm, MC
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 32(2): 159-161.

British Journal of Nutrition
Intestinal flora during the first months of life: new perspectives
Edwards, CA; Parrett, AM
British Journal of Nutrition, 88(): S11-S18.
Neonatal small bowel epithelia: enhancing anti-bacterial defense with lactoferrin and Lactobacillus GG
Sherman, MP; Bennett, SH; Hwang, FFY; Yu, C
Biometals, 17(3): 285-289.

Pediatric Gastroenterology 2004
A prebiotic formula with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides decreases the levels of Bifido-bacterium adolescentis in feces of term infants
Haarman, M; Wells, J; Boehm, G; Knol, J
Pediatric Gastroenterology 2004, (): 385-389.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Genetic diversity of viable, injured, and dead fecal bacteria assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and 16S rRNA gene analysis
Ben-Amor, K; Heilig, H; Smidt, H; Vaughan, EE; Abee, T; de Vos, WM
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(8): 4679-4689.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Effects of probiotic or prebiotic supplemented milk formulas on fecal microbiota composition of infants
Brunser, O; Figueroa, G; Gotteland, M; Haschke-Becher, E; Magliola, C; Rochat, F; Cruchet, S; Palframan, R; Gibson, G; Chauffard, F; Haschke, F
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 15(3): 368-376.

International Journal of Food Microbiology
Interaction of bifidobacteria with Caco-2 cells - adhesion and impact on expression profiles
Riedel, CU; Foata, F; Goldstein, DR; Blum, S; Eikmanns, BJ
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 110(1): 62-68.
Journal of Pediatrics
Intestinal colonization, microbiota, and probiotics
Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
Journal of Pediatrics, 149(5): S115-S120.
Clinical evaluation of a new starter formula for infants containing live Bifidobacterium longum BL999 and prebiotics
Puccio, G; Cajozzo, C; Meli, F; Rochat, F; Grathwohl, D; Steenhout, P
Nutrition, 23(1): 1-8.
Journal of Nutrition
Structural and functional aspects of prebiotics used in infant nutrition
Boehm, G; Moro, G
Journal of Nutrition, 138(9): 1818S-1828S.

Isme Journal
16S rRNA gene-based analysis of fecal microbiota from preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis
Wang, YW; Hoenig, JD; Malin, KJ; Qamar, S; Petrof, EO; Sun, J; Antonopoulos, DA; Chang, EB; Claud, EC
Isme Journal, 3(8): 944-954.
Journal of Human Lactation
Probiotic potential of 3 lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk
Martin, R; Olivares, M; Marin, ML; Fernandez, L; Xaus, J; Rodriguez, JM
Journal of Human Lactation, 21(1): 8-21.
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Getting better with bifidobacteria
Leahy, SC; Higgins, DG; Fitzgerald, GF; van Sinderen, D
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98(6): 1303-1315.
Fems Microbiology Reviews
Lessons from the genomes of bifidobacteria
Klijn, A; Mercenier, A; Arigoni, F
Fems Microbiology Reviews, 29(3): 491-509.
Acta Paediatrica
Galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides as prebiotics in infant formulas: A review
Fanaro, S; Boehm, G; Garssen, J; Knol, J; Mosca, F; Stahl, B; Vigi, V
Acta Paediatrica, 94(): 22-26.
Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Development of the intestinal microbiota in the piglet
Inoue, R; Tsukahara, T; Nakanishi, N; Ushida, K
Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 51(4): 257-265.

Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Growth during the first 6 months of life in infants using formula enriched with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: double-blind, randomized trial
Vendt, N; Grunberg, H; Tuure, T; Malminiemi, O; Wuolijoki, E; Tillmann, V; Sepp, E; Korpela, R
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 19(1): 51-58.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Isolation of Bifidobacteria from Breast Milk and Assessment of the Bifidobacterial Population by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Quantitative Real-Time PCR
Martin, R; Jimenez, E; Heilig, H; Fernandez, L; Marin, ML; Zoetendal, EG; Rodriguez, JM
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(4): 965-969.
African Journal of Biotechnology
Cholic acid resistance and the adherence ability of Bifidobacterium pseudocaenulatum G4
Sulaiman, AQ; Jalilian, FA; Mustafa, S; Sekawi, Z; Ghazali, HM; Hussin, ASM; Yazid, AM
African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(): 5066-5070.

African Journal of Microbiology Research
Initial microbial colonization in the alimentary tract of a new-born baby in different modes of parturition
Joseph, I; Singh, AJAR
African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4(3): 122-125.

Visualization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on whole-body sections of Ixodes ricinus ticks and gerbil skin biopsies
Hammer, B; Moter, A; Kahl, O; Alberti, G; Gobel, UB
Microbiology-Sgm, 147(): 1425-1436.

British Journal of Nutrition
Intestinal microflora of human infants and current trends for its nutritional modulation
Mountzouris, KC; McCartney, AL; Gibson, GR
British Journal of Nutrition, 87(5): 405-420.
Journal of Microbiological Methods
T-RFLP combined with principal component analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing: an effective strategy for comparison of fecal microbiota in infants of different ages
Wang, M; Ahrne, S; Antonsson, M; Molin, G
Journal of Microbiological Methods, 59(1): 53-69.
Environmental Microbiology
The F1F0-ATPase of Bifidobacterium animalis is involved in bile tolerance
Sanchez, B; Reyes-Gavilan, CGD; Margolles, A
Environmental Microbiology, 8(): 1825-1833.
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Do probiotics have a therapeutic role in gastroenterology?
Limdi, JK; O'Neill, C; McLaughlin, J
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12(): 5447-5457.

Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia
Cani, PD; Neyrinck, AM; Fava, F; Knauf, C; Burcelin, RG; Tuohy, KM; Gibson, GR; Delzenne, NM
Diabetologia, 50(): 2374-2383.
Pediatric Clinics of North America
Probiotics in children
Kligler, B; Hanaway, P; Cohrssen, A
Pediatric Clinics of North America, 54(6): 949-+.
Journal of Nutrition
Fecal secretory immunoglobulin A is increased in healthy infants who receive a formula with short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides
Scholtens, PAMJ; Alliet, P; Raes, M; Alles, MS; Kroes, H; Boehm, G; Knippels, LMJ; Knol, J; Vandenplas, Y
Journal of Nutrition, 138(6): 1141-1147.

Journal of Psychiatric Research
The probiotic Bifidobacteria infantis: An assessment of potential antidepressant properties in the rat
Desbonnet, L; Garrett, L; Clarke, G; Bienenstock, J; Dinan, TG
Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(2): 164-174.
Fems Microbiology Letters
Culture-independent analysis of fecal microblota in infants, with special reference to Bifidobacterium species
Sakata, S; Tonooka, T; Ishizeki, S; Takada, M; Sakamoto, M; Fukuyama, M; Benno, Y
Fems Microbiology Letters, 243(2): 417-423.
Journal of Bacteriology
Proteomic analysis of global changes in protein expression during bile salt exposure of Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB 8809
Sanchez, B; Champomier-Verges, MC; Anglade, P; Baraige, F; Reyes-Gavilan, CGD; Margolles, A; Zagorec, M
Journal of Bacteriology, 187(): 5799-5808.
Bmc Microbiology
Genometrics as an essential tool for the assembly of whole genome sequences: the example of the chromosome of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705
Guy, L; Karamata, D; Moreillon, P; Roten, CAH
Bmc Microbiology, 5(): -.
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Probiotics and down-regulation of the allergic response
Kalliomaki, MA; Isolauri, E
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, 24(4): 739-+.
Rectal bleeding in infancy: Clinical, allergological, and microbiological examination
Arvola, T; Ruuska, T; Keranen, J; Hyoty, H; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
Pediatrics, 117(4): E760-E768.
Fems Microbiology Ecology
Low species diversity and high interindividual variability in faeces of preterm infants as revealed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes and PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis profiles
Magne, F; Abely, M; Boyer, F; Morville, P; Pochart, P; Suau, A
Fems Microbiology Ecology, 57(1): 128-138.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Characterization of Immunostimulatory CpG-Rich Sequences from Different Bifidobacterium Species
Menard, O; Gafa, V; Kapel, N; Rodriguez, B; Butel, MJ; Waligora-Dupriet, AJ
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(9): 2846-2855.
Journal of Microbiological Methods
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for direct visualization of microorganisms
Moter, A; Gobel, UB
Journal of Microbiological Methods, 41(2): 85-112.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing
Kalliomaki, M; Kirjavainen, P; Eerola, E; Kero, P; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107(1): 129-134.
Aberrant composition of gut microbiota of allergic infants: a target of bifidobacterial therapy at weaning?
Kirjavainen, PV; Arvola, T; Salminen, SJ; Isolauri, E
Gut, 51(1): 51-55.

Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Prebiotics and synbiotics: towards the next generation
Rastall, RA; Maitin, V
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 13(5): 490-496.
Acta Paediatrica
Advances in the modulation of the microbial ecology of the gut in early infancy
Chierici, R; Fanaro, S; Saccomandi, D; Vigi, V
Acta Paediatrica, 92(): 56-63.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Assessment of the safety, tolerance, and protective effect against diarrhea of infant formulas containing mixtures of probiotics or probiotics and prebiotics in a randomized controlled trial
Chouraqui, JP; Grathwohl, D; Labaune, JM; Hascoet, JM; de Montgolfier, I; Leclaire, M; Giarre, M; Steenhout, P
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(5): 1365-1373.

Journal of Applied Microbiology
Synbiotics growth optimization of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 with prebiotics using a statistical methodology
Shuhaimi, M; Kabeir, BM; Yazid, AM; Nazrul Somchit, M
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106(1): 191-198.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Gupta, V; Garg, R
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 27(3): 202-209.
Bmc Microbiology
The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human microbiota changes with age
Mariat, D; Firmesse, O; Levenez, F; Guimaraes, VD; Sokol, H; Dore, J; Corthier, G; Furet, JP
Bmc Microbiology, 9(): -.
ARTN 123
Digestive Diseases
The Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Different Age Groups
Cucchiara, S; Iebba, V; Conte, MP; Schippa, S
Digestive Diseases, 27(3): 252-258.
British Journal of Nutrition
Set up of a new in vitro model to study dietary fructans fermentation in formula-fed babies
Le Blay, G; Chassard, C; Baltzer, S; Lacroix, C
British Journal of Nutrition, 103(3): 403-411.
Nutrition Research Reviews
Influence of dietary components on development of the microbiota in single-stomached species
Bauer, E; Williams, BA; Smidt, H; Mosenthin, R; Verstegen, MWA
Nutrition Research Reviews, 19(1): 63-78.
Journal of Human Lactation
Does exclusive breastfeeding increase after hospital discharge? A Greek study
Bakoula, C; Nicolaidou, P; Veltsista, A; Prezerakou, A; Moustaki, M; Kavadias, G; Lazaris, D; Fretzayas, A; Krikos, X; Karpathios, T; Matsaniotis, N
Journal of Human Lactation, 23(2): 165-173.
Nutrition Research
A whey-predominant formula induces fecal microbiota similar to that found in breast-fed infants
Rochat, F; Cherbut, C; Barclay, D; Puccioc, G; Fazzolari-Nescic, A; Grathwohl, D; Haschke, F
Nutrition Research, 27(): 735-740.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum is associated with atopic eczema: A nested case-control study investigating the fecal microbiota of infants
Gore, C; Munro, K; Lay, C; Bibiloni, R; Morris, J; Woodcock, A; Custovic, A; Tannock, GW
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121(1): 135-140.
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics
Macfarlane, GT; Steed, H; Macfarlane, S
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104(2): 305-344.
Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Feeding our immune system: Impact on metabolism
Wolowczuk, I; Verwaerde, C; Viltart, O; Delanoye, A; Delacre, M; Pot, B; Grangette, C
Clinical & Developmental Immunology, (): 1-19.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in infancy: are we closer to effective primary atopy prevention?
Heine, RG; Hosking, CS; Hill, DJ
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33(): 1327-1329.

Microbiology and Immunology
In vivo safety assessment of two Bifidobacterium longum strains
Makelainen, H; Tahvonen, R; Salminen, S; Ouwehand, AC
Microbiology and Immunology, 47(): 911-914.

Journal of Pediatrics
Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants: What is the evidence?
Heine, RG; Hill, DJ; Hosking, CS
Journal of Pediatrics, 144(5): 564-567.
Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Similar bifidogenic effects of prebiotic-supplemented partially hydrolyzed infant formula and breastfeeding on infant gut microbiota
Rinne, MM; Gueimonde, M; Kalliomaki, M; Hoppu, U; Salminen, SJ; Isolauri, E
Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 43(1): 59-65.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of fecal Lactobacillus species in infants receiving a prebiotic infant formula
Haarman, M; Knol, J
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(4): 2359-2365.
Journal of Microbiological Methods
Production and characterization of anti-bifidobacteria monoclonal antibodies and their application in the development of an immuno-culture detection method
Amrouche, T; Boutin, Y; Moroni, O; Kheadr, E; Fliss, I
Journal of Microbiological Methods, 65(1): 159-170.
Folia Microbiologica
Cell viability of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis under freeze-drying, storage and gastrointestinal tract simulation conditions
Shamekhi, F; Shuhaimi, M; Ariff, A; Manap, YA
Folia Microbiologica, 58(2): 91-101.
Probiotics and prebiotics and health in ageing populations
Duncan, SH; Flint, HJ
Maturitas, 75(1): 44-50.
British Journal of Nutrition
Immunological programming by breast milk creates an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants
Kainonen, E; Rautava, S; Isolauri, E
British Journal of Nutrition, 109(): 1962-1970.
British Journal of Nutrition
Bifidobacteria may be beneficial to intestinal microbiota and reduction of bacterial translocation in mice following ischaemia and reperfusion injury
Wang, HG; Zhang, W; Zuo, LG; Zhu, WM; Wang, B; Li, QR; Li, JS
British Journal of Nutrition, 109(): 1990-1998.
Plos One
Prenatal Methyl-Donor Supplementation Augments Colitis in Young Adult Mice
Mir, SA; Nagy-Szakal, D; Dowd, SE; Szigeti, RG; Smith, CW; Kellermayer, R
Plos One, 8(8): -.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
The gut microbial metabolome: modulation of cancer risk in obese individuals
Russell, WR; Duncan, SH; Flint, HJ
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 72(1): 178-188.
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Necrotizing enterocolitis: Pathophysiology, platelet-activating factor, and probiotics
Frost, BL; Caplan, MS
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 22(2): 88-93.
Beneficial Microbes
Probiotics and nutrients for the first 1000 days of life in the developing world
Enos, MK; Burton, JP; Dols, J; Buhulata, S; Changalucha, J; Reid, G
Beneficial Microbes, 4(1): 3-16.
Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Colonization in the Preterm and Term Infant's Intestine
Hallab, JC; Leach, ST; Zhang, L; Mitchell, HM; Oei, J; Lui, K; Day, AS
Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80(1): 1-5.
Intestinal colonization resistance
Lawley, TD; Walker, AW
Immunology, 138(1): 1-11.
American Journal of Gastroenterology
American Journal of Gastroenterology Lecture: Intestinal Microbiota and the Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) in Treatment of C. difficile Infection
Brandt, LJ
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 108(2): 177-185.
Advances in Nutrition
A Molecular Basis for Bifidobacterial Enrichment in the Infant Gastrointestinal Tract
Garrido, D; Barile, D; Mills, DA
Advances in Nutrition, 3(3): 415S-421S.
Advances in Nutrition
Host-Microbe Interactions in the Neonatal Intestine: Role of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
Donovan, SM; Wang, M; Li, M; Friedberg, I; Schwartz, SL; Chapkin, RS
Advances in Nutrition, 3(3): 450S-455S.
Journal of Nutrition
Mode of Delivery and Early Nutrition Modulate Microbial Colonization and Fermentation Products in Neonatal Piglets
Wang, M; Radlowski, EC; Monaco, MH; Fahey, GC; Gaskins, HR; Donovan, SM
Journal of Nutrition, 143(6): 795-803.
Pharmacological Research
Therapeutic modulation of intestinal dysbiosis
Walker, AW; Lawley, TD
Pharmacological Research, 69(1): 75-86.
Pharmacological Research
Adaptation of bifidobacteria to the gastrointestinal tract and functional consequences
Sanchez, B; Ruiz, L; Gueimonde, M; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Margolles, A
Pharmacological Research, 69(1): 127-136.
Glycoconjugate Journal
Characterization of N- and O-linked glycosylation changes in milk of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) over lactation
Wongtrakul-Kish, K; Kolarich, D; Pascovici, D; Joss, JL; Deane, E; Packer, NH
Glycoconjugate Journal, 30(5): 523-536.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Select Nondigestible Oligosaccharides by Infant Fecal Inocula
Boler, BMV; Serao, MCR; Faber, TA; Bauer, LL; Chow, J; Murphy, MR; Fahey, GC
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(9): 2109-2119.
Journal of Proteome Research
Gut Microbial Activity, Implications for Health and Disease: The Potential Role of Metabolite Analysis
Nyangale, EP; Mottram, DS; Gibson, GR
Journal of Proteome Research, 11(): 5573-5585.
Fems Microbiology Reviews
Quantifying the metabolic activities of human-associated microbial communities across multiple ecological scales
Maurice, CF; Turnbaugh, PJ
Fems Microbiology Reviews, 37(5): 830-848.
In vitro comparative evaluation of the impact of lacto-N-biose I, a major building block of human milk oligosaccharides, on the fecal microbiota of infants
Satoh, T; Odamaki, T; Namura, M; Shimizu, T; Iwatsuki, K; Nishimoto, M; Kitaoka, M; Xiao, JZ
Anaerobe, 19(): 50-57.
Bmc Microbiology
Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis
Ward, TL; Hosid, S; Ioshikhes, I; Altosaar, I
Bmc Microbiology, 13(): -.
ARTN 116
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides
Oozeer, R; van Limpt, K; Ludwig, T; Ben Amor, K; Martin, R; Wind, RD; Boehm, G; Knol, J
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(2): 561S-571S.
Acta Paediatrica
Gross blood in stools of premature neonates, a clinical and microbiological follow-up study
Luoto, R; Rodriguez-Diaz, J; Collado, MC; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E; Lehtonen, L
Acta Paediatrica, 102(5): 486-491.
Pediatric Research
Fermentation products: immunological effects on human and animal models
Granier, A; Goulet, O; Hoarau, C
Pediatric Research, 74(2): 238-244.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
The Relationship Between Advances in Understanding the Microbiome and the Maturing Hygiene Hypothesis
Bendiks, M; Kopp, MV
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 13(5): 487-494.
British Journal of Nutrition
Isolation, identification and characterisation of three novel probiotic strains (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants
Munoz-Quezada, S; Chenoll, E; Vieites, JM; Genoves, S; Maldonado, J; Bermudez-Brito, M; Gomez-Llorente, C; Matencio, E; Bernal, MJ; Romero, F; Suarez, A; Ramon, D; Gil, A
British Journal of Nutrition, 109(): S51-S62.
Postepy Mikrobiologii
Human Microbiome Project - influence of gut microbiota on human physiology and health
Olszewska, J; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, EK
Postepy Mikrobiologii, 51(4): 243-256.

Journal of Proteome Research
Early Diet Impacts Infant Rhesus Gut Microbiome, Immunity, and Metabolism
O'Sulliyan, A; He, X; McNiven, EMS; Haggarty, NW; Lonnerdal, B; Slupsky, CM
Journal of Proteome Research, 12(6): 2833-2845.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Comparison of the Compositions of the Stool Microbiotas of Infants Fed Goat Milk Formula, Cow Milk-Based Formula, or Breast Milk
Tannock, GW; Lawley, B; Munro, K; Pathmanathan, SG; Zhou, SJ; Makrides, M; Gibson, RA; Sullivan, T; Prosser, CG; Lowry, D; Hodgkinson, AJ
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(9): 3040-3048.
Acta Paediatrica
Intestinal microbial profiles in extremely preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis
Normann, E; Fahlen, A; Engstrand, L; Lilja, HE
Acta Paediatrica, 102(2): 129-136.
Trends in Microbiology
Development of intestinal microbiota in infants and its impact on health
Matamoros, S; Gras-Leguen, C; Le Vacon, F; Potel, G; de La Cochetiere, MF
Trends in Microbiology, 21(4): 167-173.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care
Probiotics and mucosal barrier in children
Penna, FJ; Péret, LA; Vieira, LQ; Nicoli, JR
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 11(5): 640-644.
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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Molecular-phylogenetic analyses of human gastrointestinal microbiota
Frank, DN; Pace, NR
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 17(1): 52-57.

PDF (178)
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
IgE-mediated food allergy
Calhoun, KH; Schofield, ML
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, 18(3): 182-186.
PDF (135) | CrossRef
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Galacto-oligosaccharides Are Bifidogenic and Safe at Weaning: A Double-blind Randomized Multicenter Study
Fanaro, S; Marten, B; Bagna, R; Vigi, V; Fabris, C; Peña-Quintana, L; Argüelles, F; Scholz-Ahrens, KE; Sawatzki, G; Zelenka, R; Schrezenmeir, J; de Vrese, M; Bertino, E
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 48(1): 82-88.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Effect of Maternal Consumption of Lactobacillus GG on Transfer and Establishment of Fecal Bifidobacterial Microbiota in Neonates
Gueimonde, M; Sakata, S; Kalliomäki, M; Isolauri, E; Benno, Y; Salminen, S
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 42(2): 166-170.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Clinical Evidence for Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotic Bacteria
Ruemmele, F; Bier, D; Marteau, P; Rechkemmer, G; Bourdet-Sicard, R; Walker, W; Goulet, O
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 48(2): 126-141.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Dosage-Related Bifidogenic Effects of Galacto- and Fructooligosaccharides in Formula-Fed Term Infants
Moro, G; Minoli, I; Mosca, M; Fanaro, S; Jelinek, J; Stahl, B; Boehm, G
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 34(3): 291-295.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Randomized Double-Blind Study of the Nutritional Efficacy and Bifidogenicity of a New Infant Formula Containing Partially Hydrolyzed Protein, a High β-Palmitic Acid Level, and Nondigestible Oligosaccharides
Schmelzle, H; Wirth, S; Skopnik, H; Radke, M; Knol, J; Böckler, H; Brönstrup, A; Wells, J; Fusch, C
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 36(3): 343-351.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Can the Gut Microflora of Infants Be Modified by Giving Probiotics to Mothers?
Tannock, G
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 38(3): 244-246.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Probiotic Bacteria in Dietetic Products for Infants: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition
Agostoni, C; Axelsson, I; Braegger, C; Goulet, O; Koletzko, B; Michaelsen, KF; Rigo, J; Shamir, R; Szajewska, H; Turck, D; Weaver, LT
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 38(4): 365-374.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Changes of Gut Microbiota and Immune Markers During the Complementary Feeding Period in Healthy Breast-fed Infants
Amarri, S; Benatti, F; Callegari, M; Shahkhalili, Y; Chauffard, F; Rochat, F; Acheson, K; Hager, C; Benyacoub, J; Galli, E; Rebecchi, A; Morelli, L
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 42(5): 488-495.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Bifidogenic Effects of Solid Weaning Foods With Added Prebiotic Oligosaccharides: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial
Scholtens, PA; Alles, MS; Bindels, JG; van der Linde, EG; Tolboom, JJ; Knol, J
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 42(5): 553-559.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Impact of Diet on the Intestinal Microbiota in 10-month-old Infants
Nielsen, S; Nielsen, DS; Lauritzen, L; Jakobsen, M; Michaelsen, KF
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 44(5): 613-618.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Long-term Colonization of a Lactobacillus plantarum Synbiotic Preparation in the Neonatal Gut
Chaudhry, R; Taylor, S; Hansen, NI; Gewolb, IH; Panigrahi, P; Parida, S; Pradhan, L; Mohapatra, SS; Misra, PR; Johnson, JA
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 47(1): 45-53.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Diet-dependent Mucosal Colonization and Interleukin-1β Responses in Preterm Pigs Susceptible to Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Van Haver, ER; Sangild, PT; Oste, M; Siggers, JL; Weyns, AL; Van Ginneken, CJ
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 49(1): 90-98.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Intestinal Microbiota of 6-week-old Infants Across Europe: Geographic Influence Beyond Delivery Mode, Breast-feeding, and Antibiotics
Fallani, M; Young, D; Scott, J; Norin, E; Amarri, S; Adam, R; Aguilera, M; Khanna, S; Gil, A; Edwards, CA; Doré, J; and Other Members of the INFABIO Team,
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 51(1): 77-84.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Acidic Oligosaccharides from Pectin Hydrolysate as New Component for Infant Formulae: Effect on Intestinal Flora, Stool Characteristics, and pH
Fanaro, S; Jelinek, J; Stahl, B; Boehm, G; Kock, R; Vigi, V
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 41(2): 186-190.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Probiotic Intervention in the First Months of Life: Short-Term Effects on Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Long-Term Effects on Gut Microbiota
Rinne, M; Kalliomäki, M; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 43(2): 200-205.
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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Molecular Tools to Investigate Intestinal Bacterial Communities
Suau, A
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 37(3): 222-224.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
rRNA Probes Used to Quantify the Effects of Glycomacropeptide and α-Lactalbumin Supplementation on the Predominant Groups of Intestinal Bacteria of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Challenged with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
Brück, WM; Kelleher, SL; Gibson, GR; Nielsen, KE; Chatterton, DE; Lönnerdal, B
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 37(3): 273-280.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Fecal Microbial Community in Preterm Infants
Magne, F; Suau, A; Pochart, P; Desjeux, J
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 41(4): 386-392.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Human Faecal Microbiota Develops the Ability to Degrade Type 3 Resistant Starch During Weaning
Scheiwiller, J; Arrigoni, E; Brouns, F; Amadò, R
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 43(5): 584-591.
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The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Applications of Probiotics for Neonatal Enteric Diseases
Shane, AL
The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 22(3): 238-243.
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Back to Top | Article Outline

Breast-feeding; Fecal flora development; Fluorescent in situ hybridization; Formula-feeding; Infant nutrition; Intestinal flora; Selective culture media; 16S rRNA

© 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


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