Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and short-term safety of topical mitomycin-C, an antifibrotic agent, in preventing the recurrence of anastomotic strictures after surgical repair of esophageal atresia (EA).
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with recurrent anastomotic strictures after EA surgery who underwent at least 3 esophageal dilations. We compared the outcome (ie, resolution of the stricture) of the group that received topical mitomycin-C treatment with endoscopic esophageal dilation with a historical cohort treated by dilations alone.
Results: A total of 11 children received mitomycin-C concurrently with endoscopic dilations. After a median follow-up of 33 months (range 18–72), and a mean number of 5.4 dilations per patient (range 3–11), 8 of 11 patients achieved a resolution of their strictures, 2 patients remained with stenosis, and 1 patient needed a surgical correction. In the control group, 10 patients required an average of 3.7 (range 3–7) total dilations. After a follow-up of 125 months (range 35–266) after the last dilation, strictures in 9 of 10 children disappeared and the remaining patient was symptom free. No dysplasia related to mitomycin-C was demonstrated.
Conclusions: There is no benefit in the resolution of the stricture when adding mitomycin-C treatment compared with repeated esophageal dilations alone in historical controls. Further randomized controlled studies and a short- and long-term evaluation of safety are needed.