Skip Navigation LinksHome > March 2014 - Volume 58 - Issue 3 > Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Premature Infants
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition:
doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000211
Original Articles: Hepatology and Nutrition

Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Premature Infants

Underwood, Mark A.*; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mirmiran, Majid*; Barile, Daniela; Tancredi, Daniel J.*; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.§; Mills, David A.

Supplemental Author Material
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Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increasing doses of 2 prebiotic oligosaccharides and of an “all-human diet” on the intestinal microbiota of premature infants.

Methods: Twelve premature infants receiving formula feedings were randomly assigned to receive either galacto-oligosaccharide (F+GOS) or a pooled concentrated donor human milk product containing human milk oligosaccharides (F+HMO) in increasing doses during a 5-week period. A second group of 15 premature infants received their mother's own milk fortified with either a concentrated donor human milk product (H+H) or a bovine powdered fortifier (H+B). Serial stool specimens from each infant were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial composition.

Results: All of the infants studied had relatively low levels of bifidobacteria and no measurable Lactobacilli. Infants from the F+GOS and F+HMO groups demonstrated an increase in relative numbers of Clostridia with increasing doses. Compared with the H+B group, the infants in the F+HMO and the H+H groups showed an unexpected trend toward an increase in γ-Proteobacteria over time/dose. Principal coordinate analyses and Shannon diversity scores were not significantly different among the 4 groups. Infants in the H+H group received more antibiotics during the study period than those in the other groups. Two of the infants receiving GOS developed feeding intolerance.

Conclusions: None of the prebiotic interventions resulted in significant increases in bifidobacteria compared with baseline specimens or the H+B group; however, many of the infants did not receive the highest doses of GOS and HMO, and antibiotic use in the H+H group was high.

© 2014 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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