ABSTRACT: We verified whether smoking during lactation influences breast milk cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) levels 30 to 32 days after delivery. The study group comprised 24 postpartum women who declared smoking >5 cigarettes per day. The control group included 45 nonsmoking postpartum women. Compared with nonsmoking women, smokers were characterized by significantly higher breast milk concentrations of IL-1α (P = 0.04), whereas no significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of remaining analyzed cytokines. Moreover, both groups were characterized by a similar fraction of women with detectable cytokine levels.
*Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
†Department of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Gdansk
‡Department of Food Chemistry, Technology and Biotechnology, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Medical University of Gdansk, 1-6 Nowe Ogrody St, 80-803 Gdansk, Poland (e-mail: email@example.com).
Received 13 June, 2012
Accepted 10 September, 2012
The authors report no conflicts of interest.