Background and Aim: The prophylactic oral administration of vitamin K to newborns has markedly reduced the incidence of vitamin K deficiency (VKD); however, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is still one of the complications found in biliary atresia (BA) patients and is associated with VKD bleeding. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence and long-term outcome of ICH in patients with BA who previously received prophylactic vitamin K during the neonatal period.
Methods: Eighty-eight consecutive infants with BA were treated and followed up at Kyushu University Hospital from 1979 to 2009. The clinical records and imaging study results were retrospectively reviewed in the infants with BA who presented with ICH.
Results: ICH occurred in 7.95% of patients with BA. The onset of ICH occurred at 47 to 76 days after birth, before the patients underwent surgery for BA (9–37 days after the onset of ICH). Coagulopathy was found upon admission in all of the cases with available data and improved after intravenous administration of vitamin K. A craniotomy was required in 2 cases before the surgery for BA. During the 22 to 278 months of follow-up, some neurologic sequelae persisted in 5 of 7 cases. Follow-up head computed tomography scans showed a low-density area in the left hemisphere in 5 cases.
Conclusions: Although vitamin K prophylaxis had been given during the neonatal period, ICH-associated VKD bleeding was still found in 7.95% of patients with BA. Persistent neurologic sequelae were found in 5 of 7 cases, with low-density area in the left hemisphere.