Objectives: Pancreatitis is a known complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Our aim was to assess the prevalence and severity of ERCP-associated pancreatitis using established criteria.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years undergoing ERCP complicated by post-ERCP pancreatitis defined by the 1991 consensus statement. Patients with chronic pancreatitis were studied separately using modified criteria. Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis were analyzed.
Results: Three hundred forty-three ERCPs were performed in 224 patients. Two hundred seventy-six ERCPs were performed in patients without chronic pancreatitis, 7 of which were complicated by post-ERCP pancreatitis (prevalence 2.5%). Patients undergoing diagnostic-only ERCP were less likely to develop post-ERCP pancreatitis (P < 0.01). Sixty-seven procedures were performed on patients with chronic pancreatitis; 10 developed postprocedure pain requiring or prolonging hospitalization (prevalence 14.9%). Pancreatic duct stenting was a risk factor for post-ERCP pain in this subset of patients (P = 0.02).
Conclusions: The prevalence of post-ERCP pancreatitis is low—2.5% excluding patients with chronic pancreatitis and 4.96% overall. Therapeutic procedures and the presence of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis.