Changes in food production and dietary practices are occurring faster than our understanding of their potential impact on children's health. Traditionally, pediatric gastroenterologists have studied food with respect to its nutritive value and digestibility, its influence on metabolism, its growth-promoting characteristics, and its relationship to risk and severity of disease. Biotechnology is now expanding the science of food to include disease prevention and treatment, as well as the feeding of children on a global scale. Bioengineered (“genetically modified”, or “transgenic”) plants were initially developed to enhance the food supply by increasing crop yields. Such previously developed transgenic plants are now prevalent worldwide and appear in many processed food products. The implementation of the technology of genetic modulation of food plants has led to considerable fear, controversy, and confusion as the understanding of the technology is poor in the general population. This review presents an overview of genetically modified food crops and their potential unique benefits and risks to children's health. Political, economical, and ecological issues related to transgenic crops are not discussed.