The objective of this study is to compare the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) versus yoga on urinary urge incontinence (UI) at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after beginning an 8-week program.
Materials and Methods
Participants in this prospective randomized single-masked pilot study were women aged 18 years or older with urge-predominant incontinence, 5 or more UI episodes (UIEs) on a 3-day voiding diary, and no recent anticholinergic use. Women were randomized to MBSR or yoga. The primary outcome was the percent change of UIE.
Of 30 enrollees (15 in MBSR, 15 in yoga), 24 completed at least 5 of 8 sessions (13 in MBSR and 11 in yoga). Twenty and 21 women completed the 6-month and 12-month follow-up visits, respectively. At 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months, the median percent change from the baseline in UIE on the intention-to-treat analysis was greater for the MBSR group (−55.6, −71.4, and −66.7, respectively) compared with that for the yoga group (−33.3, −11.8, and −16.7, respectively), with P values ranging from 0.01 to 0.08. On intention-to-treat analysis, the median percent change in the Overactive Bladder Symptom and Quality of Life–Short Form and the Health-Related Quality of Life was greater at each time point for MBSR than for yoga but was statistically significant only at 8 weeks (P = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively). As per protocol analysis, at 8 weeks, 6/13 and 0/11 women in MBSR and yoga, respectively, reported they were very much or much better (P = 0.02), whereas at 1 year, 6/12 and 1/9 women in MBSR and yoga, respectively, did so (P = 0.16).
These results support larger scale trials to evaluate MBSR, which seems to be a promising treatment of UI.