Blood conservation techniques are used to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. One of the most important blood conservation techniques is the optimization of blood counts prior to invasive procedures with anticipated blood loss. Infusion nurses need to understand the importance of treating patients who require the use of parenteral iron to attempt to optimize their blood counts before procedures. Infusion nurses provide a vital link to patient safety and treatment. This article will also discuss other methods of blood conservation frequently used to protect a scarce resource and reduce inappropriate transfusions.