MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER IN YOUNG STUDENT ATHLETESJoseph Biederman, MD, Leah Feinberg, BS, James Chan, MA, Bamidele O. Adeyemo, MD, K. Yvonne Woodworth, BA, Walter Panis, MD, Neal McGrath, PhD, Saurabha Bhatnagar, MD, Thomas J. Spencer, MD, Mai Uchida, MD, Tara Kenworthy, BA, Rebecca Grossman, BA, Ross Zafonte, DO, Stephen V. Faraone, PhD
In this study, we hypothesized that ADHD would be an antecedent risk factor for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Participants were student athletes ages 12 to 25 who had sustained a mTBI, and Controls of similar age and sex were selected from studies of youth with and without ADHD. Subjects were assessed for symptoms of ADHD, concussion severity, and cognitive function. mTBI subjects had a significantly higher rate of ADHD than Controls, and in all cases the age of onset of ADHD was before mTBI onset. mTBI+ADHD subjects also had more severe concussion symptoms (fatigue and poor concentration) than mTBI-ADHD subjects.
EXPLORING ATTACHMENT PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH COMORBID BORDERLINE PERSONALITY AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS
Andreas Schindler, PhD, and Peter Michael Sack, PhD
This cross-sectional, naturalistic study explores attachment patterns in a sample of comorbid (borderline personality disorder [BPD] and substance use disorders [SUD]) patients, comparing them to two samples of patients with either SUD or BPD only. Within-group comparisons replicated findings of both preoccupied and fearful-avoidant attachment in BPD and comorbid groups. But between-group comparisons showed that comorbid patients were significantly less preoccupied (p = 0.018) and more dismissing-avoidant (p = 0.030). Attachment patterns of the comorbid group were more similar to substance abusers than to borderline patients.
A PILOT STUDY OF SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF CRANIAL ELECTROTHERAPY STIMULATION IN TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR II DEPRESSION
Deimante McClure, BA, Samantha C. Greenman, BA, Siva S. Koppolu, MBBS, Maria Varvara, MD, Igor I. Galynker, MD, PhD
This double-blind, sham-controlled study sought to investigate the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for the treatment of bipolar II depression (BD II). After randomization, the active group participants (n = 7) received 2 mA CES treatment for 20 minutes, five days a week for 2 weeks, whereas the sham group (n = 9) had the CES device turned on and off. Symptom nonremitters from both groups received an additional 2 weeks of open-label active treatment. Active CES treatment, but not sham treatment, was associated with a significant decrease in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores from baseline to the second week (p = 0.003), maintaining significance until week 4 (p = 0.002). The results of this study indicate that CES may be a safe and effective treatment for BD II.
EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS ON HELP SEEKING AND STIGMA: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Patrick W. Corrigan, PsyD, Karina J. Powell, MS, Maya A. Al-Khouja
Health communication campaigns often seek to diminish stigma and promote care seeking, with public service announcements (PSAs) frequently prominent in these campaigns. One example is the Australian-based beyondblue campaign. As an alternative approach, campaigns may seek to reduce stigma by promoting stories of recovery. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and empowering attitudes at pre-, post-, and 72-hour follow-up after being randomized to a PSA recovery-oriented video, treatable disease-oriented video (beyondblue), or control. When exposed to the recovery-oriented PSA, participants showed significant reduction in stigmatizing attitudes from pre- to posttest than beyondblue or the control group with the emergence of nonsignificant trends identified at follow-up. Findings suggest a recovery-oriented video leads to better change on measures of stigma and affirming attitudes than beyondblue.
EATING DISORDERS AND THERAPIST EMOTIONAL RESPONSES
Antonello Colli, PhD, Anna Maria Speranza, PhD, Vittorio Lingiardi, MD, Daniela Gentile, PhD, Valentina Nassisi, PhD, Mark J. Hilsenroth, PhD
The aims of this study were to identify (a) patterns of clinicians’ emotional responses to patients with eating disorders (ED); (b) patient, clinician, and treatment variables associated with therapist emotional responses; and (c) the influence of patient personality on therapist emotional responses. A random national sample of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists (N = 149) was asked to examine one patient (>18 years old) with an ED. Results suggested a therapist pattern of emotional response in relation to different ED diagnosis and indicated meaningful influence of therapist experience and patient variables on therapist emotional reactions. Finally, regression analysis suggested that therapist responses are more related to patient personality than ED symptoms.
DOES SENSE OF CONTROL PREDICT DEPRESSION AMONG INDIVIDUALS AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL DISCHARGE?
Yoo Jung Kim, MSW, Rachel A. Fusco, PhD, MSW
In this study, the longitudinal relationship between sense of control and depressive mood was examined using the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, a 6-wave, 1-year study of 948 ethnically diverse postdischarge psychiatric patients. Sense of control was decomposed into 2 components to examine which component of sense of control would more accurately explain this relationship. Results demonstrated that time-varying sense of control significantly predicted changes in depressive mood during the transition to community environment. Time-invariant sense of control, however, was not significantly related to changes in depressive mood.
EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION EXPERIENCES AND CHILDHOOD TRAUMA: A RORSCHACH INVESTIGATION
Giuseppe Scimeca, PsyD, PhD, Antonio Bruno, MD, PhD, Gianluca Pandolfo, MD, PhD, Giulia, La Ciura, MD, Rocco A. Zoccali, MD, Maria R. A. Muscatello, MD, PhD
Thirty-one nonclinical participants reporting recurrent ESP experiences were compared with a nonclinical sample of 31 individuals who did not report recurrent ESP phenomena. Past traumatic experiences were assessed via a self-report measure of trauma history; traumatic intrusions were assessed via a performance-based personality measure. The ESP group reported higher levels of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and traumatic intrusions. The association between ESP experiences and trauma was partly mediated by the effects of dissociation and emotional distress. Results also showed the reliability of the twofold method of assessment of trauma.
A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG ORPHANED CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN TANZANIA
Shannon Dorsey, PhD, Leah Lucid, BA, Laura Murray, PhD, Paul Bolton, MBBS, DTMH, MPH, MSc, Dafrosa Itemba, MSc, Rachel Manongi, MD, Kathryn Whetten, PhD
We used an existing rapid ethnographic assessment approach to identify mental health problems from the perspective of orphans and guardians to inform a subsequent randomized controlled trial of a Western-developed, evidence-based psychosocial intervention, Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Local Kiswahilispeaking interviewers conducted 73 free list interviews and 34 key informant interviews. Results identified both common cross-cultural experiences and symptoms, as well as uniquely described symptoms not typically targeted by the intervention or included on standardized measures of intervention effects.
SLEEP PARALYSIS AMONG EGYPTIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS: ASSOCIATION WITH ANXIETY SYMPTOMS (PTSD, TRAIT ANXIETY, PATHOLOGICAL WORRY)
Baland Jalal, BA, Devon E. Hinton, MD, PhD
Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety.
“GIVE SORROW WORDS”: WORKING WITH BEREAVEMENT IN SENIOR RESIDENTIAL SETTINGS
C. Knight Aldrich, MD
Bereavement and its consequent grief are frequent in senior residential settings. Failure to manage grief appropriately can have serious medical consequences, principally clinical depression. Focused talk with a grieving person can help ease the pain of grief; it can also help prevent complications that often lead to depression. Along with mental health professionals, staff members and volunteers can be important, and less expensive, participants in reaching this goal.
ANGER AND PARANOIA IN MENTALLY-DISORDERED OFFENDERS
Kayleigh Darch DClinPsy, Lyn Ellett PhD, Simone Fox DClinPsy
Sixty-six participants who had a violent conviction and mental disorder completed self-report questionnaires that measured anger, paranoid ideation, socially desirable responding, anxiety, and depression. The findings indicated that increased anger was associated with increased paranoia. Partial correlations showed that anger remained significantly associated with paranoia after socially desirable responding, anxiety, depression, gender, and violence history were controlled, suggesting that anger and paranoia were not associated due to indirect relationships with these constructs. This could suggest that integrative psychological interventions that consider experiences of both anger and paranoia may be beneficial with forensic populations.
RESPONSE AND REMISSION AFTER COGNITIVE AND EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR HYPOCHONDRIASIS
Florian Weck, PhD, and Julia M. B. Neng, PhD
The study was based on a randomized controlled trial that treated patients with hypochondriasis (N = 75). The primary outcome measure was a clinician-administered structured interview for hypochondriasis. At posttreatment, response was found for 72.0% and remission for 45.3% of the patients. At 12-month follow-up, the response rate was 68.0%, and the remission rate was 54.7%. No significant differences in the frequency of response/remission were found between the cognitive therapy and the exposure therapy groups.
Intergenerational Cycles of Trauma and Violence: An Attachment and Family Systems Perspective. Pamela C. Alexander (Ed) (2014) New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 384 pp.
Reviewed by Clarice J. Kestenbaum, M.D.
DBT Skills Training Manual, 2nd Ed. Marsha Linehan (2015) New York: The Guilford Press, 504 pp., and DBT Skills Training, Handouts and Worksheets. Marsha Linehan (2015) New York: The Guilford Press, 422 pp.
Reviewed by Harold I. Eist, M.D.