Editorial for Special Issue on Affective Disorders. Robert M.A. Hirschfeld, M.D. H14021
This special issue of the Journal includes six articles on mood disorders:two epidemiologic studies, one on course of illness, one on diagnosis, one on an intervention for depression, and one on the determinants of stigma. The common theme among these studies is that mood disorders (including depression and bipolar disorder) are truly whole body illnesses which have broad and long lasting adverse consequences.
MORE MEDICAL COMORBIDITIES IN PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER FROM THE UNITED STATES THAN FROM THE NETHERLANDS AND GERMANY. Robert.M. Post, M.D., Lori Altshuler, M.D., Gabriele S. Leverich, M.S.W., Mark A. Frye, M.D., Trish Suppes, M.D., PhD., Susan L. McElroy, M.D., Paul E. Keck, Jr, M.D., Willem A. Nolen, M.D., Ralph W. Kupka, M.D., Heinz Grunze, M.D., Mike Rowe. P12429
Medical comorbidities in patients with bipolar disorder, have not previously been examined for differences between US and Europe. We examined questionnaires from more than 900 outpatients with BPI and BPII disorder (average age 41) reporting whether they had 30 listed medical conditions. Patients from the US had a significantly higher incidence of obesity and 9 other medical comorbidities than those from Europe who only had more hyperthyroidism.
EFFECT OF INCIDENT AXIS I DISORDERS ON QUALITY OF LIFE. Jose M. Rubio, M.D., Mark Olfson, M.D., Ph.D., Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes, Ph.D., Mauro Garcia-Toro, M.D., Shuai Wang, Ph.D., Carlos Blanco, M.D., Ph.D. R13220
To examine whether quality of life decreases following new onset of psychiatric disorders and to characterize variations across disorders, data were drawn from a longitudinal study representative of the adult US population: The NESARC is a longitudinal survey with its first wave of interviews fielded in 2001–2002 and the second wave in 2004–2005. With the exception of alcohol abuse, new incidence of each examined DSM-IV disorder was associated with a decrement in quality of life, the largest for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, even in individuals without history or presence of any other mental disorder.
PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF DEPRESSION AMONG SURVIVORS EIGHT MONTHS AFTER THE WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE. Zhiyong Qu, Ph.D., Chong-Wen Wang, Ph.D., Xiulan Zhang, Ph.D., Andy H.Y. Ho, M.Soc., Xiying Wang, Ph.D., Cecilia L.W. Chan, Ph.D. w12130
This study assessed the estimated rate of depression and associated risk factors among survivors eight months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The estimated rate of depression was 35.7%. The severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with female gender, perceived livelihood security, loss of a family member, residential house damage or collapse, and not living in urban area, whereas married status was a protector against depressive symptoms.
EFFECTS OF UNIVERSAL SCREENING FOR DEPRESSION AMONG MIDDLE-AGED ADULTS IN A COMMUNITY WITH A HIGH SUICIDE RATE. Hirofumi Oyama, M.D., Ph.D., Tomoe Sakashita, M.A. O12445
We examined the effect of a community-based screening program on depression in middle-aged individuals. Change in depressive symptom prevalence was assessed through before-and-after cross-sectional surveys using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Of the 900 targeted individuals, 49.2% participated in the screening. Comparison of data from these surveys after controlling for district-level clustering indicated a greater difference in prevalence between baseline and 5-year follow-up in the intervention group than that in the controls.
EXPLORATORY QUANTUM RESONANCE SPECTROMETER AS A DISCRIMINATOR FOR PSYCHIATRIC AFFECTIVE DISORDERS. Yan Zhang, Feihu Liu, Xiaobin Yue, Haitao Zhang, Xiangnong Du, Lisha Sun, Jing Yua. S12356
The aim of this study was to evaluate reliability and clinical value of the quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) in psychiatric diagnosis. We studied 1014 patients with schizophrenia and 248 patients with mood disorders (including 93 major depression patients). Results showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of hypothymia, anxiety, and irritability detected utilizing QRS was more than 0.66 compared with psychiatrists’ diagnoses. Detection of affective disorders (especially major depression) by QRS was superior. QRS might become a novel and objective psychiatric diagnostic tool.
TOO SICK, NOT SICK ENOUGH? EFFECTS OF TREATMENT TYPE AND TIMING ON DEPRESSION STIGMA. Erin J. Henshaw, PhD H12449
A case vignette survey design was used to explore effects of treatment timing (early, delayed, or untreated) and depression treatment type (pharmacological or psychological) on components of depression stigma. The survey was distributed to two samples, 116 undergraduates and 301 participants from online service Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). As expected, extended untreated depression was associated with greater social distance and negative character evaluation than treated depression, and early treatment was associated with higher illness invalidity stigma (both samples) and illness responsibility stigma (undergraduate sample only). Taken together, the pattern of results suggests separate facets of stigma are associated with early depression treatment and prolonged untreated depression.
NON-SUICIDAL SELF-INJURY (NSSI) AND ITS RELATION TO PERSONALITY TRAITS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS. Paul L. Plener, M.D., Marc Allroggen M.D., Rita Kleinrahm, Thea Andrea Diane Rau PhD, Laura Weninger M.D., Andrea G. Ludolph Prof., M.D. P13116 (7, 23, 3 tables)
Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts in German medical students and explore the associations between these behaviours and the five major personality traits. Seven hundred and fourteen medical students (67% female, age range 18-35 years, mean age 23.1 years) participated in an online-survey. We report a lifetime prevalence of 14.3% for NSSI and 1.5% for suicide attempt. Students with NSSI showed higher levels of neuroticism and openness to experience, but lower levels of conscientiousness and extraversion on the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI).
CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PARANORMAL BELIEFS. Monisha Berkowski, M.A., Douglas A. MacDonald, Ph.D. B12308
The current study attempted to investigate links between personal characteristics and paranormal beliefs by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. Additionally, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.
METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS FACTORS AFFECT COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA COMPLICATED BY METABOLIC SYNDROME. Chenhu Lia, Guilai Zhana, Shunzeng Raoa, Hong Zhanga. L13237
To investigate the characteristics of cognitive function damage in patients with chronic schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome (MS), 388 patients were divided into two groups: MS group (180 with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome) and non-MS group (208 with schizophrenia without metabolic syndrome). Repeatable battery for the assessment of neuro-psychological status (RBANS) total scale score, as well as attention, immediate memory and delayed memory scores in the MS group were significantly lower than those in the non-MS group. There was no significant change in visuospatial skill and language scores between the two groups. The course of disease, triglyceride, antipsychotics drug type, systolic pressure, negative symptom factor and education level also showed a notable significance for cognitive function damage. There was no significant change in visuospatial skill and language scores between the two groups.
SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF MALADAPTIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS OVER THE COURSE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS. Katrin Schroeder, M.D., Dieter Naber, M.D., AND Christian G. Huber, M.D. S13089
An increase in subjective maladaptive personality traits (MPT) may play a role for a patient’s concept of illness, quality of life, and adherence to therapeutic interventions. This study assessed both current maladaptive personality traits (MPT) and, retrospectively, pre-morbid MPT in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD) patients. We also wanted to determine if the perceived changes could be explained by SSD psychopathology. According to patients’ retrospective assessment, MPT increased through onset and course of SSD. Memory bias, depressed mood and SSD symptoms alone could not sufficiently explain these differences.
PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER IN ADULTS FROM A FRENCH COMMUNITY SAMPLE. Hervé Caci, M.D., Ph.D., Alexandre J. S. Morin, Ph.D., Antoine Tran, M.D. C13169
The principal aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in an adult French community sample and look for an effect of sex and/or age. Potential correlates of ADHD symptoms were also examined in their relatives (children, brothers/sisters, uncles/aunts, and parents): birth order, level of education, body mass index categories, enuresis, suicide attempts, depression, and learning disabilities. The Adult ADHD symptoms Self-Report (ASRS) was filled out by 1,171 parents of 900 school-aged youths in the context of the Children and Parents with ADHD and Related Disorders study. Prevalence estimates based on three scoring methods are compared (6-item screener, all 18 items, or the screener followed by the 12 remaining items). Based on the recommended and more conservative scoring method, the overall prevalence of ADHD symptoms is estimated to be 2.99%, without significant group differences between genders, or between younger and older adults. We observed a consistent pattern of findings regarding the associations between ADHD symptoms and depression. In a related way, although only two of 27 suicide attempters were classified as presenting ADHD symptoms, we did find that offspring and brothers/sisters of parents with possible ADHD presented a higher risk of attempting suicide. Our study is the first to report that offspring of participants with ADHD symptoms presented 18 times the odds of attempting suicides than offspring of non-ADHD parents.
PERSONALITY CONSTELLATIONS OF ADOLESCENTS WITH HISTORIES OF TRAUMATIC PARENTAL SEPARATIONS. Johanna C. Malone, Ph.D., Drew Westen, Ph.D., Alytia A. Levendosky, Ph.D. M12369
The present study examined personality characteristics and identified personality subtypes of adolescents with histories of traumatic separations. Randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided data on 236 adolescents with histories of traumatic separations using a personality pathology instrument designed for use by clinically experienced observers, the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-II-A). Using a Q factor analysis, five distinct personality subtypes were identified: internalizing/avoidant, psychopathic, resilient, impulsive dysregulated, and immature dysregulated. The personality subtypes demonstrated substantial incremental validity in predicting adaptive functioning, above and beyond demographic variables and histories of other traumatic experiences.
A DSM HISTORY OF PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER. Peter Zachar, Ph.D., Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D. K13236
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. This is in contrast to the intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy aroused by earlier proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. In order to understand the factors that led to this change, psychiatrists and psychologists were interviewed who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. Based on these interviews a list was compiled of empirical and non-empirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise. How key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5 is discussed.