Reported Maltreatment in Childhood in Relation to the Personality Features of Norwegian Adult Psychiatric OutpatientsFosse, Gunilla Klensmeden MD; Holen, Are MD, PhDJournal of Nervous & Mental Disease: January 2007 - Volume 195 - Issue 1 - pp 79-82 doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000252312.98109.d4 Original Articles Abstract Author Information Abstract To explore long-term associations between maltreatment in childhood and personality features in adulthood, 160 consecutive adult psychiatric outpatients completed self-administered questionnaires. Maltreatment was defined as either child abuse or neglect exerted by parents or other adults, coldness and overprotection by parents, or bullying by peers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to detect childhood abuse by parents or other adults, while dimensions of parental coldness and overprotection were captured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Personality variables were covered by the 5-PFa related to the “Big Five,” The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Locus of Control of Behavior. Reports of bullying by peers were linked to poor self-esteem and external locus of control. Child maltreatment by parents or other adults were linked to the Big Five personality dimensions; bullying by peers was not. Author Information Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Supported in part by a research grant from the Norwegian Council for Mental Health. Send reprint requests to Gunilla Klensmeden Fosse, MD, Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, MTFS, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7489 Trondheim, Norway. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.