Among the numerous challenges facing healthcare leaders is the paucity of well-prepared, effective managers. Cuts in recent years have reduced "bench strength," and the demands of managing in a complex industry are significant. The authors describe a 3-level leadership development program created at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to meet this challenge. Leadership gaps, content for each level, and outcomes are discussed.
Authors' affiliations: Professor (Dr Wolf), Nursing Leadership, School of Nursing; Director of Beckwith Institute for Innovation (Ms Bradle); Associate to the Vice President (Ms Greenhouse),University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Corresponding author: Dr Wolf, School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, 336 Victoria Building, 3500 Victoria Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (firstname.lastname@example.org).