Abstract: There are continuing concerns regarding the respiratory health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) after the destruction of the World Trade Centre (WTC). We examined cytokine (interleukin [IL]-8, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α) release by primary human lung alveolar macrophages (AM) and type II epithelial cells after exposure to WTC PM2.5 (indoor and outdoor), PM10-2.5 (indoor), and PM53-10 (outdoor), fractionated from settled dusts within 2 months of the incident. There was an increase in AM cytokine/chemokine release at 5 and/or 50 μg/well WTC PM, which fell at 500 μg/well. Type II cells did not release tumor necrosis factor-α, and the increase in IL-8 and IL-6, although significant, was lower than that of AM. Respirable PM generated by the WTC collapse stimulates inflammatory mediator release by lung cells, which may contribute to the increased incidence of respiratory illness since September 11th 2001.