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Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
Original Articles

Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health Status and Employee Productivity

Koopman, Cheryl Phd; Pelletier, Kenneth R. PhD, MD(hc); Murray, James F. PhD; Sharda, Claire E. RN, MBA, MHSA; Berger, Marc L. MD; Turpin, Robin S. PhD; Hackleman, Paul MA; Gibson, Pamela MPH; Holmes, Danielle M.; Bendel, Talor BA

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Abstract

Workforce productivity has become a critical factor in the strength and sustainability of a company’s overall business performance. Absenteeism affects productivity; however, even when employees are physically present at their jobs, they may experience decreased productivity and below-normal work quality—a concept known as decreased presenteeism. This article describes the creation and testing of a presenteeism scale evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A total of 175 county health employees completed the 34-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-34). Using these results, we identified six key items to describe presenteeism, resulting in the SPS-6. The SPS-6 has excellent psychometric characteristics, supporting the feasibility of its use in measuring health and productivity. Further validation of the SPS-6 on actual presenteeism (work loss data) or health status (health risk assessment or utilization data) is needed.

© 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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