Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
Fast Track Article
Community Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate: Relationships Between Serum Levels and Certain Health Parameters
Emmett, Edward Anthony MD, MS; Zhang, Hong MD, MPH; Shofer, Frances Susan PhD; Freeman, David MS; Rodway, Nancy Virginia MD, MPH; Desai, Chintan BSc; Shaw, Leslie Michael PhD
From the University of Pennsylvania (Dr Emmett, Dr Shofer, Mr Desai, Dr Shaw), School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Grand Central Family Medicine (Dr Zhang), Parkersburg, West Virginia; Decatur Community Association (Mr Freeman), Cutler, Ohio; and Adena Occupational Health (Dr Rodway), Chillicothe, Ohio.
This study was supported by grant ES12591 from the Environmental Justice Program and by grant no. 1 P30 ES013508-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, National Institutes of Health.
Address correspondence to: Edward A. Emmett, MD, Occupational Medicine, Silverstein Pavilion, Ground Floor, 3400 Spruce St., Philadelphia, PA 19104-4284; E-mail: email@example.com.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether certain biomarkers of toxicity and/or a past diagnosis of liver or thyroid disease were associated with serum perfluorooctanoate concentrations (PFOA) in a community with longstanding environmental exposure to PFOA.
Methods: Serum (PFOA), hematologic and biochemical biomarkers, and a questionnaire were administered to 371 residents selected by stratified random sampling and a lottery among volunteers. Median PFOA was 354 ng/mL (interquartile range, 181–571 ng/mL).
Results: No significant positive relationships between serum (PFOA) and liver or renal function tests, cholesterol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, or with red cell indices, white cell, or platelet counts. Mean serum (PFOA) was not increased in those with a history of liver or thyroid disease.
Conclusions: No toxicity from PFOA was demonstrated using the measured end points; other end points need to be addressed.
Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, CF3, [CF2]6 C00−, CAS No. 3825-26-1) is a persistent pollutant in the environment and found at low concentrations in many diverse human populations globally. PFOA has defined toxicity to experimental species, but the toxicity to humans remains unclear. In this article, we report the first published study of possible health effects of PFOA in a nonoccupational group.
PFOA has commercial use primarily as ammonium perfluorooctanoate, an essential surface-active agent in the production of various fluoropolymers, including tetrafluoroethylene. Fluoropolymers are used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products, including non-stick cookware, waterproof, breathable textiles, consumer house wares, electronics, aerospace, and other applications. PFOA also occurs as a contaminant in other fluorochemicals and telomer products.1 Telomers are highly fluorinated compounds used in protective coatings for carpets, paper, construction materials, and apparel, and in insecticide formulations and high performance surfactant products. PFOA is not detectable in fluoropolymer cookware samples studied under simulated cooking conditions.2 Ammonium perfluorooctanoate is fully dissociated into the anion form, perfluorooctanoate, in environmental media and biologic fluids.
PFOA is a manmade chemical with no known natural source3 that is persistent in the environment and is resistant to biologic, environmental, or photochemical degradation. PFOA, along with a related compound, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), is now found both in marine animals inhabiting widely spread geographic biospheres4 and in human serum from widely disparate groups. The median serum PFOA concentration ([PFOA]) in the U.S. population is around 4 to 5 μg/L with occasional values above 20 μg/L.5–7
The toxicology of PFOA has recently been reviewed.1,8 In rats, PFOA is well absorbed after both oral and inhalation exposure9,10 distributing primarily to the liver, plasma, and kidneys.11 PFOA binds covalently to proteins in the rat liver, plasma, and testes.11 The serum half-life in rodents is a few days with slower elimination in male rats than female.12,13 Urine and feces are the principal routes of excretion in male rats; urine only in females14 and castrated male rats.14,15 In male rats, fecal excretion of PFOA is increased by cholestyramine resin intake, suggesting enterohepatic circulation.16
PFOA is not metabolized in mammals.9,12,17 A number of toxic effects have been observed in experimental species. PFOA is one of a group of compounds that activates the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha in rats leading to a response characterized broadly as peroxisomal proliferation.1 In rats, PFOA is strongly hepatotoxic10,18; male rats are more susceptible.19 Aged rats are also more susceptible to the liver damage and oxidative stress caused by PFOA.20 PFOA is immunotoxic to rats, resulting in a decrease in spleen and thymus weights21 as a result of both PPAR alpha-dependent processes22 and actions mediated through the brain.23 PFOA has been associated with increased serum estradiol and reduced testosterone in rats possibly due to induction of hepatic aromatase activity.24
Monkeys fed PFOA show decreased thyroid hormone levels, increases in liver weight and toxic hepatic changes,25 slight to moderate hypocellularity of the bone marrow, moderate atrophy of lymphoid follicles, and marked diffuse lipid depletion in the adrenals.19
Carcinogenesis studies in rats fed PFOA show statistically significant increases in liver tumors, pancreatic acinar cell tumors, testicular Leydig cell adenomas (males), and mammary hyperplasia (females) compared with controls.26,27 In rodents, PFOA promotes liver carcinogenesis.28–30 Although the significance of these tumors to humans is unclear, the International Agency for Research on Cancer31 has concluded that liver tumors induced in rodents by PPAR agents are unlikely to be operative in humans based on the current understanding of the mode of action in animals. Although tumor formation by PFOA was thought to occur only through nongenotoxic mechanisms,32 Yao and Zhou33 have recently reported that PFOA exerts genotoxic effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells mediated through intracellular reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage.
Because of profound differences in PFOA half-lives between species, toxicokinetics of PFOA in humans cannot be predicted based on animal data.8 The half-life in the blood of PFOA in rats, after a single oral dose, was 4 hours in females and 9 days in males.12 In rabbits, the serum half-life is in the order of 4 hours for both males and females.34 The serum half-life in cynomolgus monkeys is approximately 20 days with urine as the primary source of excretion.35,36 The mean half-life in the serum of human retirees from the 3M Company who had previous heavy occupational exposure was 4.37 years (range, 1.5–13.49 years; standard deviation, 3.53) without substantial gender differences. Age, body mass index (BMI), and number of years since retirement were not significant predictors of the human serum half-lives in multivariate regression analysis.37 In humans, the renal clearance of PFOA is 10−5 fold less than the glomerular filtration rate suggesting the absence of excretion by human kidneys.38 Thus, the published half-life in human females is approximately 35,000 times longer than that for the female rat.
Human studies addressing potential PFOA toxicity are limited. Cross-sectional analysis of routine medical surveillance results from facilities producing both PFOA and PFOS have found significant positive association between serum PFOA and increased cholesterol, triglycerides, and thyroid hormone (T3) levels.39 Cross-sectional studies of hormonal levels in workers at a PFOA production facility have found significant associations between serum hormones and PFOA in some years40 but not other years.41 Elevated serum liver enzymes were associated with occupational exposure to PFOA but only in obese men (BMI >35 kg/m2)42 and not in subsequent years.43 Preliminary results from two recent unpublished studies of workers occupationally exposed to PFOA have also observed a positive association between serum (PFOA) and serum cholesterol (Dupont Company, personal communication).
A retrospective cohort mortality study at a plant producing PFOA found an elevated standardized mortality ratio for prostate cancer in chemical production workers, which was significantly associated with length of employment in chemical production. The relative risk of prostate cancer was 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–10.6) for workers employed in chemical manufacturing for 10 years or more.44 A follow-up study in which workers were classified into multiple exposure groups did not confirm the association,45 but may have been limited by low statistical power to detect elevation in cancer rates in the smaller, reclassified groups. No epidemiologic studies of potential health effects in nonoccupational groups have been reported.
We have performed an epidemiologic study of residents in the Little Hocking water district in southeastern Ohio where there is significant environmental exposure to PFOA. Water supplied by the Little Hocking Water Association has been contaminated with PFOA for many years over the last 3 years at a mean level of 3.5 μg/L. PFOA in the environment in the vicinity of Little Hocking is generally believed to be coming from a neighboring industrial facility where it is used as a solvent and dispersant for fluoropolymer production. We have shown that the residents of this water district have a median serum (PFOA) that is approximately 70 times that of the general U.S. population and that the major source of PFOA is water from either the public water supply or contaminated residential well water (Emmett EA, Shofer FS, Zhang H, et al, unpublished data). Serum (PFOA) was also influenced by age (higher in those ≤5 or ≥60), number of tap water drinks per day, number of weekly servings of home-grown fruits and vegetables, and use of a carbon-based residential water filter. Residents of the area who also worked in the production area of the plant had the highest PFOA levels with residential and occupational exposures appearing to be additive.
In this article, we explore whether certain biomarkers of toxicity and adverse health effects, potentially attributable to PFOA based on animal toxicologic studies, are associated with serum (PFOA) in Little Hocking water district residents. Specifically, we examine serum liver function tests, cholesterol, renal function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and various hematologic parameters. We also examine whether studied individuals reporting a previous clinical diagnosis of either liver or thyroid disease have elevated PFOA compared with study participants without such diagnoses.
Materials and Methods
Selection and Study Group
The study group consisted of residents from a stratified random sample of persons from households who had resided in the Little Hocking Water Association district for at least 2 years supplemented by a smaller group of volunteers meeting the same eligibility criteria. The selection of households for the sampling frame, selection of the stratified random sample of residents, process for distributing invitations to participate, and participation rates are described elsewhere (Emmett EA, Shofer FS, Zhang H, et al, unpublished data). For our previous studies of routes of exposure, 18 residents, who had substantial occupationally exposed to PFOA in the production area of the fluoropolymer production facility, and had been selected into the study by chance through the stratified random sampling process were excluded from some analyses. These 18 subjects were all included in the analyses reported in this article.
Administration of Questionnaires
Administration of questionnaires and collection of blood samples were performed at the Grand Central Family Medicine Office in nearby Parkersburg, West Virginia. Informed consent was first obtained from each subject or parent or guardian in the case of minors. Minors under the ages of 17 were encouraged to give informed assent whenever feasible. Different questionnaires were administered to adults and children. Questionnaires were developed and revised after review by the members of the Community Advisory Committee and by a group of experts from the U.S. EPA. Before finalization, the questionnaires were pilot-tested on a representative group of 20 individuals from similar southeastern Ohio or western West Virginia communities who did not live in the Little Hocking Water Association District. Trained interviewers administered all questionnaires.
All adults 18 years and older were administered an adult questionnaire. The information elicited included demographic and occupational information, health conditions (ie, have you ever been treated for or told by a doctor that you have any of the following health conditions: cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, any other liver condition; hyperthyroidism, hyperactive or overactive thyroid, goiter or enlarged thyroid, hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid; history of bleeding disorder, smoking, and alcohol habits?). All children were asked similar questions except that the questions about smoking and alcohol habits were omitted.
Blood and Samples
Phlebotomy was performed on all subjects. No subjects were given instructions to fast. Five milliliters of blood were taken into a purple-topped Vacutainer tube and sent for complete blood count (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell indices, white cell count and differential white cell count, platelet count). Thirty milliliters of blood were drawn into red-topped Vacutainer tubes: 10 mL were immediately sent for serum chemistry determinations (total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase [SGOT], alanine aminotransferase [SGPT], gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT], total cholesterol, TSH). Twenty milliliters of blood was immediately spun down and the serum frozen and stored pending shipping in batches to the Clinical Toxicology Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania for PFOA analysis. The storage, shipping, and handling of samples and the assay procedure for PFOA are described elsewhere (Emmett EA, Zhang H, Shofer FS, et al, unpublished data). PFOA was analyzed using HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry by a modification of the method of Flaherty et al.46
Feedback of Results to Participants
Each participant was informed of his or her personal blood chemistry and hematologic results as well as PFOA together with any necessary explanation by a local healthcare provider (HZ or NR). Those few participants with markedly abnormal blood chemistry and/or hematologic results were personally telephoned by HZ or NR and the results discussed directly with the participant. Participants with abnormal laboratory results were advised to see their personal physician.
Statistical Analysis of Biomonitoring and Exposure Data
To determine if serum (PFOA) was correlated with any liver function or hematologic parameter, simple regression was used. To assess whether PFOA levels were increased in those with abnormal blood chemistries or hematologic values, binary groups were formed (normal vs abnormal) and tested using Student t test. Serum (PFOA) in participants with thyroid or liver disease was compared with those without disease using Student t test. For the regressions, data are presented using correlation coefficients and P values testing whether the slope of the line is 0. Serum (PFOA) is presented as mean, median, and interquartile range (IQR). All analyses were performed using SAS statistical software (version 9.1; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Human Subjects Approval
The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Pennsylvania. Participation was voluntary. Informed consent was obtained for all participants before any study. A certificate of confidentiality was obtained from the National Institutes of Health to ensure maximum protection of personal information and results.
The study was conducted through a partnership among the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, the Decatur Community Association, a local community association in the Little Hocking water service area, and Grand Central Family Medicine in Parkersburg, West Virginia, a local healthcare provider, through a grant from the Environmental Justice Program of NIEHS. The community was involved at all stages of the study. The Community Advisory Committee included residents from the affected townships, representatives of the U.S. and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, and the Health Commissioner for Washington County, Ohio.
Demographics and Distribution of Serum (PFOA) in the Studied Population
Results were available from 371 individuals, 317 participants from the randomly selected sample and 54 from the volunteer group. Females represented 53.4% of the study sample (N = 198). The age distribution of the study group is presented in Table 1. The median age of the study group was 50 years (range, 2.5–89 years). There were 43 children under 18 years of age.
The distribution of serum (PFOA) in the studied individuals is presented in Figure 1. In the population, the median serum (PFOA) was 354 ng/mL and the interquartile range was 184 to 571 ng/mL. There was a fairly uniform distribution of values through approximately 450 ng/mL with a truncated distribution to around 2100 ng/mL and one value above 4000 ng/mL.
Relationship Between Serum (PFOA) and Chemistry and Hematologic Biomarkers
The mean, median, and interquartile range for the studied blood chemistry variables in this population are presented in Table 2. Additionally, we present a regression slope and correlation coefficient testing the relationship between serum (PFOA) and each blood or serum chemistry variable. No significant correlation between any test and PFOA was observed (P > 0.05 for all). This remained true whether the relationship was explored for all individuals a group or separately for adults aged 19 or older and children/adolescents aged 18 or less.
The mean, median, interquartile ranges, and the regression slope and correlation coefficient testing the relationship between serum (PFOA) and the studied hematologic variables are presented in Table 3. Only absolute monocyte count demonstrated a significant correlation with serum (PFOA) (P = 0.01). However, the slope estimate was small (slope = 0.00,005) and the correlation coefficient suggested a very weak positive correlation (r = .13). There was no significant relationship between serum (PFOA) and the percentage of monocytes in differential white cell counts.
We also evaluated whether the serum (PFOA) was significantly different between those with abnormal values for each of the serum chemistry and hematologic variables compared with those who had a normal value for that test. For this purpose, abnormal values were defined with respect to the normal ranges for the individual ages providing an additional check for age-related effects. Results for each variable were examined separately, as shown in Table 4. In three instances, AST (SGOT), percent neutrophils, and percent lymphocytes, there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.03, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). In each case, study individuals with abnormal values had lower serum (PFOA) compared with individuals with normal values (AST: abnormal PFOA = 263 vs normal PFOA = 449; neutrophils: abnormal PFOA = 354 vs normal PFOA = 454; lymphocytes: abnormal PFOA = 327 vs norm PFOA = 450). In no instance was an abnormal value positively associated with PFOA.
Relationship Between Serum (PFOA) and Reported Liver or Thyroid Disease
Study individuals with liver disease (N = 13) had higher levels of PFOA (527 ng/mL) compared with individuals without liver disease (441 ng/mL) but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.5). Study individuals with thyroid disease (N = 40) had lower levels of PFOA (387 ng/mL) compared with individuals without thyroid disease (451 ng/mL), but this difference was also not statistically significant (P = 0.3).
We have found no significant positive association between serum (PFOA) and markers of a number of potential health effects from PFOA in a sample of residents from a community with markedly elevated serum (PFOA) compared with general population levels. The median serum (PFOA) in the studied residents was 354 ng/mL with an interquartile range of 184 to 571 ng/mL compared with a median serum (PFOA) in the general U.S. population of 4 to 5 ng/mL5–7 and a median serum (PFOA) of 6 ng/mL (interquartile range, 5–10 ng/mL) in 30 Philadelphia area residents (Emmett EA, Shofer FS, Zhang H, et al, unpublished data). The median serum (PFOA) for 259 workers using PFOA at the fluoropolymer production facility neighboring the Little Hocking community was 490 ng/mL, and the median serum (PFOA) for 342 workers at that same facility who had never been assigned to PFOA areas was 110 ng/mL.47
The biomarkers for effect and the diseases were chosen on the basis of the known toxicity in experimental animals and the results of a limited number of human occupational studies.
Although PFOA has been described as binding with human and rat serum albumin,48 we did not observe any association between serum (PFOA) and serum protein levels. We did not evaluate whether the concentration of PFOA was elevated in the protein compartment of serum compared with other compartments.
In rats, PFOA administration results in PPAR alpha activation and is associated with reduction in serum cholesterol levels.1 The apparent association of increasing serum cholesterol with serum (PFOA) observed in three recent clinical studies of occupational groups is the opposite of what would be expected from PPAR alpha activation, suggesting a different mechanism in humans. In this study, we did not observe any association between serum (PFOA) and serum cholesterol.
In rodents, the liver appears to be the most sensitive target organ to the effects of PFOA. Subchronic and chronic toxicity studies show that PFOA administration produces increased liver size, diffuse hepatocellular hypertrophy and necrosis, and dose-dependent increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, ALT, and AST levels.10,18 Male rats develop liver toxicity at lower levels than females perhaps reflecting slower elimination.19 Not only is the liver the most sensitive organ in rats, but in rodent studies of PFOA administration, tumors have only been observed at PFOA dosages that result in overt hepatic damage, including changes in ALT and AST. Therefore, the potential for adverse changes in biomarkers of liver damage and any association between higher serum (PFOA) and past diagnosis or treatment for liver disease in our study participants were of particular interest. We observed no significant positive associations between any of the studied biomarkers of potential liver toxicity (serum albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ALT, AST, or GGT) with serum (PFOA), and no significant elevation of serum (PFOA) in those with abnormal values for any of these biomarkers. Additionally, PFOA was not significantly elevated in those with a history of diagnosis or treatment of liver disease compared with those with no history of liver disease. We concluded that PFOA was not associated with demonstrable manifestations of increased liver disease in this population.
We did not evaluate cancer outcomes and therefore can make no firm conclusions with regard to potential carcinogenic outcomes in the study population. Nevertheless, because in rodents, cancer from PFOA is always accompanied by evidence of frank liver damage, our failure to find evidence of liver damage could equate to a low likelihood of cancer induction through nongenotoxic mechanisms.
We did not find evidence for an association of either blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine and PFOA in the study population.
Reduced levels of thyroid hormones have been observed both in monkeys fed PFOA25 and in occupationally exposed groups as part of their medical surveillance.39 We observed neither an association of serum (PFOA) with the levels of serum TSH nor an increased serum (PFOA) in those with a history of thyroid disease compared with those without such disease. A history of thyroid disease was quite prevalent in this population, being reported by 11% of participants, but we detected no contribution to this burden from PFOA exposure.
PFOA administration to monkeys is associated with bone marrow hypocellularity and there is evidence of immunotoxicity in both rats21–23 and monkeys19 fed PFOA. We did not observe changes in blood elements or in the differential white cell count associated with serum (PFOA). We consider that the isolated weak but statistically significant positive association of absolute monocyte counts and serum (PFOA) may have been a chance finding. This association has not been previously noted in published studies of those working with PFOA, and we observed no corresponding association between the percentage monocyte count and serum (PFOA).
Developmental and reproductive studies in rats fed PFOA have not demonstrated developmental defects in offspring49 despite observed toxicity in parents. However, rat pup body weight was significantly reduced during lactation from PFOA-treated mothers. A two-generation reproductive study in rats found a slight but statistically significant: decrease in the lactation index for F1 male pups, increases in postlactation deaths in F1 females, delays in sexual maturation in F1 females, increase in estrous cycles in F1 females, and delay in sexual maturation in F1 males, which could have resulted from compromised nutritional status.50 Thus, further investigation into potential reproductive and developmental effects of PFOA in humans is necessary.
We consider that our results would reflect the effects, if any, of long-term exposure to PFOA in this community setting. The plant considered the source of PFOA has been in operation since 1948 and has been involved in fluoropolymer production using PFOA since 1951. Contamination of the community water supply by PFOA was detected around 1984, although results were not publicly available until much later. PFOA levels in Little Hocking system water have been measured regularly for the past 3 years; there have been variations, but the levels have remained within a general range. Our study inclusion criteria included residence in the water system distribution area for at least 2 years before data collection. Thus, all participants would be expected to have had exposure to PFOA over a minimum period of 2 years.
The population we studied had serum (PFOA) very far above the mean PFOA observed to date in samples from the general U.S. population. Our failure to find an association between PFOA and the variables we studied makes it highly unlikely that these variables would be affected by the PFOA levels currently found in the general U.S. population. Our study did not address the possibility that PFOA might be contributing to other effects. Based on the findings in experimental animals, other end points, particularly cancer, reproductive and childhood development, require further study.
1. Kennedy GL, Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW, et al. The toxicology of perfluorooctanoate. Crit Rev Toxicol
2. Powley CR, Michalcyzyk MJ, Kaiser MA, et al. Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) extractable from the surface of commercial cookware under simulated cooking conditions by LC/MS/MS. Analyst
3. Gribble GW. Naturally occurring organofluorines. In: Neilson AH, ed. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry
, vol 3. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2002:121–136.
4. Kannan K, Koistinen J, Beckman K, et al. Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals. Environ Sci Technol
5. Olsen GW, Church TR, Miller JP, et al. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in the serum of American Red Cross adult blood donors. Environ Health Perspect
6. Olsen GW, Church TR, Hausen KJ, et al. Quantitative evaluation of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in the serum of children. J Childrens Health
7. Olsen GW, Church TR, Larson EB, et al. Serum concentration of perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in an elderly population from Seattle, Washington. Chemosphere
8. Kuto N, Kawashima Y. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid in humans and animals. J Toxicol Sci
9. Ophaug RH, Singer L. Metabolic handling of perfluorooctanoic acid in rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med
10. Kennedy GL, Hall GT, Britelli MR, et al. Inhalation toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate. Food Chem Toxicol
11. Vanden Heuvel JP, Kuslikis BI, Peterson RE. Covalent binding of perfluorinated fatty acids to proteins in the plasma, liver and tests of rats. Chem Biol Interact
12. Vanden Heuvel JP, Kuslikis BI, Van Rafelghem ML, et al. Tissue distribution, metabolism, and elimination of perfluorooctanoic acid in male and female rats. J Biochem Toxicol
13. Ylinen M, Kojo A, Hanhijdrvi H, et al. Disposition of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat after single and subchronic administration. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
14. Vanden Heuvel JP, Davis JW, Sommers R, et al. Renal excretion of perfluorooctanoic acid in male rats: inhibitory effect of testosterone. J Biochem Toxicol
15. Kudo N, Katakura M, Sato Y. Sex hormone regulated renal transport of perfluorooctanoic acid. Chem Bio Interactions
16. Johnson JD, Gibson SJ, Ober RE. Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium [14C] perfluorooctanoate or potassium [14C] perfluorooctanesulfonate. Fund Appl Toxicol
17. Ylinen M, Hanhijarvi H, Jaakonaho I, et al. Stimulation by estradiol of the urinary excretion of perfluorooctanoic acid in the male rat. Pharmacol Toxicol
18. Kennedy GL. Dermal toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
19. Griffith FD, Long JE. Animal toxicity studies with ammonium perfluorooctanoate. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J
20. Badr MZ, Birnbaum LS. Enhanced potential for oxidative stress in livers of senescent rats by the peroxisome proliferalpha agonist perfluorooctanoic acid. Mech Aging Dev
21. Yang Q, Xie Y, DePierre JW. Effects of peroxisome proliferators on the thymus and spleen of mice. Clin Exp Immunol
22. Yang Q, Xie Y, Alexson, et al. Involvement of peroxisomal–proliferator–activate receptor alpha in the immunomodulation caused by peroxisome proliferators in mice. Biochem Pharmacol.
23. Taylor BK, Kreidt C, Nagalingam S. Central administration of perfluorooctanoic acid inhibits cutaneous inflammation. Inflammation Research
24. Cook JC, Murray SM, Frame SR, et al. Induction of Leydig cell adenomas by ammonium perfluorooctanate: a possible endocrine related mechanism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
25. Butentoff J, Costa G, Elcombe C, et al. Toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in male cynomolgus monkeys after oral dosing for six months. Toxicol Sci
26. Riker. Two Year Oral (Diet) Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Study of Fluorochemical FC-143 in Rats
. Riker Laboratories Inc. Experiment No. 0281CR0012, August 29, 1987. US EPA Public Docket AR-226-0437. Washington, DC.
27. Biegel LB, Hurtt ME, Frame SR, et al. Mechanisms of extrahepatic tumor induction by peroxisome proliferators in male CD rats. Toxicol Sci
. 2001;60: 44–45.
28. Abdellatif AG, Preat V, Taper HS, et al. The modulation of rat liver carcinogenesis by perfluorooctanoic acid, a peroxisome proliferator. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
29. Nilsson R, Beije B, Preat V, et al. On the mechanism of the hepatocarcinogenicity of peroxisomal proliferators. Chem Biol Interact
30. Abdellatif A, Al-Tonsy AH, Awad ME, et al. Peroxisomal enzymes and 8-hydroxyguanosine in rat liver treated with perfluorooctanoic acid. Dis Markers
. 2003; 19:19–25.
31. Peroxisome Proliferation and Its Role in Carcinogenesis
. IARC Technical Report No. 24. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1995.
32. Clegg ED, Cook JC, Chapin RE, et al. Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenoma formation: mechanisms and relevance to humans. Reprod Toxicol
33. Yao X, Zhong L. Genotoxic risk and additive DNA damage in hepG2 cells exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid. Mutat Res
34. Johnson JD. Final Report. Analytical Intravenous Pharmacokinetic Study of T-6067 in Rabbits.
Study No. AMDT-120694. 3M Environmental Toxicology Services. St. Paul, MN; 1995.
35. Butenhoff JL, Kennedy GL Jr, Hindliter PM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of perfluorooctanoate in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci
36. Noker P. A Pharmacokinetic Study of Potassium Perfluorooctanoate in the Cynomolgus Monkey.
Southern Research Institute Study ID: 99214, 2003. Southern Research Institute. US EPA Public Docket AR-226-1228, Washington, DC.
37. Burris JM, Lundberg JK, Olsen GW, et al. Determination of Serum Half-Lives of Several Fluorochemicals.
Interim Report #2. 3M Medical Department. US EPA Public Docket AR-226–1086. Washington, DC; 2002.
38. Harada K, Inoue K, Akiko M, et al. Renal clearance of perfluorooctane sulphonate and perfluorooctanoate in humans and their species specific excretion. Environ Res
39. Olsen GW, Burris JM, Burlew MM, et al. Epidemiologic assessment of worker serum perfluorosulphoanate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate concentrations and medical surveillance examinations. J Occup Environ Med
40. Gilliland FD. Fluorocarbons and human health: studies in an occupational cohort [PhD dissertation], University of Minnesota; 1992.
41. Olsen GW, Gilliland FD, Burlew MM, et al. An epidemiologic investigation of reproductive hormones in men with occupational exposure to perflourooctanoic acid. J Occup Environ Med
42. Gilliland FD, Mandel JS. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid and hepatic enzymes, lipoproteins, cholesterol: a study of occupationally exposed men. Am J Ind Med
43. Olsen GW, Burris JM, Burlew MM, et al. Plasma cholecystokinin and hepatic enzymes, cholesterol and lipoproteins in perfluorooctanoate production workers. Drug Chem Toxicol
44. Gilliland FD, Mandel JS. Mortality among employees of a perfluorooctanoic acid production plant. J Occup Med
45. Alexander BH, Olsen GW, Burris JM, et al. Mortality of employees of a perfluorooctanesulphonyl fluoride manufacturing facility. Occup Environ Med
46. Flaherty JM, Connolly PD, Decker ER, et al. Quantitative determination of perfluorooctanoic acid in serum and plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. J Chromatog B
47. US EPA. Results to Date From the PFOA Worker Health Study, January 11
. US EPA Public Docket AR-226-1922. Washington, DC; 2005.
48. Han X, Snow TA, Kemper RA, et al. Binding of perfluorooctanoic acid to rat and human plasma proteins. Chem Res Toxicol
49. Staples RE, Burgess BA, Kerns WD. The embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenic potential of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in the rat. Fund Appl Toxicol
50. Butentoff JL, Kennedy GL, Frame SR, et al. The reproductive toxicology of ammonium perfluorooctanoate in the rat. Toxicology
This article has been cited 45 time(s).
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental HealthPerfluorinated compounds - Exposure assessment for the general population in western countriesInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-GesundheitsschutzReference value for perfluoroctan acid (PFOA) and perfluoroctansulfon acid (PFOS) in blood plasmaBundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental EngineeringCongener-specific organic carbon-normalized soil and sediment-water partitioning coefficients for the C-1 through C-8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic and sulfonic acidsJournal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Environmental Health PerspectivesAssociation between Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Thyroid Disease in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination SurveyEnvironmental Health Perspectives
American Journal of GastroenterologyInvestigation of the Associations Between Low-Dose Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Liver Enzymes in US AdultsAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Environmental Science & TechnologySerum concentrations of 11 polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the US population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000Environmental Science & Technology
ThyroidPerfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Surgical Thyroid Specimens of Patients with Thyroid DiseasesThyroid
Toxicological SciencesExposure to the immunosuppresant, perfluorooctanoic acid, enhances the murine IgE and airway hyperreactivity response to ovalbuminToxicological Sciences
Environmental Health PerspectivesPerfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: A study within the Danish National Birth CohortEnvironmental Health Perspectives
American Journal of EpidemiologyAssociation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate With Serum Lipids Among Adults Living Near a Chemical PlantAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface ScienceHighly fluorinated amphiphilic molecules and self-assemblies with biomedical potentialCurrent Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science
Physiology & BehaviorExploratory assessment of perfluorinated compounds and human thyroid functionPhysiology & Behavior
Environmental Health PerspectivesAssociation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with Uric Acid among Adults with Elevated Community Exposure to PFOAEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Reproductive ToxicologyCongenital anomalies, labor/delivery complications, maternal risk factors and their relationship with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-contaminated public drinking waterReproductive Toxicology
American Journal of EpidemiologyFetal growth indicators and perfluorinated chemicals: A study in the Danish National Birth CohortAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Toxicological SciencesActivation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by perfluoroalkyl acids of different functional groups and chain lengthsToxicological Sciences
Toxicological SciencesPerfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring and toxicological findingsToxicological Sciences
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental HealthOne-year follow-up of perfluorinated compounds in plasma of German residents from Arnsberg formerly exposed to PFOA-contaminated drinking waterInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental EngineeringPerfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids: A critical review of physicochemical properties, levels and patterns in waters and wastewaters, and treatment methodsJournal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Environmental Health PerspectivesBiomonitoring of perfluorinated compounds in children and adults exposed to perfluorooctanoate-contaminated drinking waterEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Persistent Perfluoro Compounds - A Risk for Human Health and Environment
Toxicology of perfluoroctan acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctansulfon acid (PFOS)
Persistent Perfluoro Compounds - A Risk for Human Health and Environment, ():
ToxicologyThe atrophy and changes in the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen observed in mice subjected to short-term exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate are high-dose phenomena mediated in part by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha)Toxicology
Journal Fur Verbraucherschutz Und Lebensmittelsicherheit-Journal of Consumer Protection and Food SafetyToxicology of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)Journal Fur Verbraucherschutz Und Lebensmittelsicherheit-Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety
Environmental Science & TechnologyTemporal and Spatial Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) along the East Coast of the United StatesEnvironmental Science & Technology
Perfluorinated compounds: occurrence and risk profile
Neuroendocrinology Letters, 29(5):
Environmental Science & TechnologyOccurrence of Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates and Sulfonates in Drinking Water Utilities and Related Waters from the United StatesEnvironmental Science & Technology
Journal of Physical Chemistry AAtmospheric chemistry of linear perfluorinated aldehydes: Dissociation kinetics of CnF2n+1CO radicalsJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Persistent Perfluoro Compounds - A Risk for Human Health and Environment
PFT -epidemiological study NRW
Persistent Perfluoro Compounds - A Risk for Human Health and Environment, ():
Environmental Science and Pollution ResearchLevels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Environmental Science & TechnologyPerfluorinated Compounds and Total and Extractable Organic Fluorine in Human Blood Samples from ChinaEnvironmental Science & Technology
Environmental Health PerspectivesExposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Cholesterol, Body Weight, and Insulin Resistance in the General US PopulationEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Toxicological SciencesPerfluoroalkyl acids and related chemistries - Toxicokinetics and modes of actionToxicological Sciences
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
Determination of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rhine River, Germany
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 18():
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental HealthAssessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical production workersInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryHistoric Dietary Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Perfluorinated Carboxylates, and Fluorotelomer Unsaturated Carboxylates from the Consumption of Store-Bought and Restaurant Foods for the Canadian PopulationJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications3D-Qsar Study of the Endocrine Disrupting Effect of Perfluorooctane Sulfonates (Pfos) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (Pfoa) on Human Estrogen, Androgen and Thyroid ReceptorsCollection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications
Environmental Health PerspectivesPolyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the US population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000Environmental Health Perspectives
Reproductive ToxicologyThe relationship between birth weight, gestational age and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-contaminated public drinking waterReproductive Toxicology
Environmental Science & TechnologyPolyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in Pooled Blood Serum from Infants, Children, and Adults in AustraliaEnvironmental Science & Technology
Environment InternationalUse of simple pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Australians to perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acidEnvironment International
Environmental ResearchDo perfluoroalkyl substances affect metabolic function and plasma lipids?-Analysis of the 2007-2009, Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1Environmental Research
Plos OneAssociation between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish PopulationPlos One
Environmental Health PerspectivesExposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function among Children and Adolescents Living near a Chemical PlantEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Science of the Total EnvironmentPerfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: Identification, origin and mobilityScience of the Total Environment
Environmental HealthAssociation between Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid stimulating hormone among pregnant women: a cross-sectional studyEnvironmental Health
©2006The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.
Readers Of this Article Also Read