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Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31829b27fa
Original Articles

Relationship Between Long Working Hours and Depression: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study of Clerical Workers

Amagasa, Takashi MD, MPH; Nakayama, Takeo MD, PhD

Continued Medical Education
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Abstract

Objective: To clarify how long working hours affect the likelihood of current and future depression.

Methods: Using data from four repeated measurements collected from 218 clerical workers, four models associating work-related factors to the depressive mood scale were established. The final model was constructed after comparing and testing the goodness-of-fit index using structural equation modeling. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed.

Results: The final model showed the best fit (normed fit index = 0.908; goodness-of-fit index = 0.936; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.018). Its standardized total effect indicated that long working hours affected depression at the time of evaluation and 1 to 3 years later. The odds ratio for depression risk was 14.7 in employees who were not long-hours overworked according to the initial survey but who were long-hours overworked according to the second survey.

Conclusions: Long working hours increase current and future risks of depression.

Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

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