To clarify how long working hours affect the likelihood of current and future depression.
Using data from four repeated measurements collected from 218 clerical workers, four models associating work-related factors to the depressive mood scale were established. The final model was constructed after comparing and testing the goodness-of-fit index using structural equation modeling. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed.
The final model showed the best fit (normed fit index = 0.908; goodness-of-fit index = 0.936; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.018). Its standardized total effect indicated that long working hours affected depression at the time of evaluation and 1 to 3 years later. The odds ratio for depression risk was 14.7 in employees who were not long-hours overworked according to the initial survey but who were long-hours overworked according to the second survey.
Long working hours increase current and future risks of depression.
From the Department of Health Informatics (Drs Amagasa and Nakayama), Kyoto University School of Public Health, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan; and Department of Psychiatry (Dr Amagasa), Yoyogi Hospital, Sendagaya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Address correspondence to: Takashi Amagasa, MD, MPH, Department of Health Informatics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan (email@example.com).
Authors Amagasa and Nakayama have no relationships/conditions/circumstances that present potential conflict of interest.
The JOEM editorial board and planners have no financial interest related to this research.