Skip Navigation LinksHome > July 2013 - Volume 55 - Issue 7 > Reciprocity and Depressive Symptoms in Belgian Workers: A Cr...
Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31828dc8cd
Original Articles

Reciprocity and Depressive Symptoms in Belgian Workers: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

De Clercq, Bart MSc; Clays, Els PhD; Janssens, Heidi MD; De Bacquer, Dirk PhD; Casini, Annalisa PhD; Kittel, France PhD; Braeckman, Lutgart MD, PhD

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Objective: This study examines the multidimensional association between reciprocity at work and depressive symptoms.

Methods: Data from the Belgian BELSTRESS survey (32 companies; N = 24,402) were analyzed. Multilevel statistical procedures were used to account for company-level associations while controlling for individual-level associations.

Results: Different dimensions of individual reciprocity were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. On the company level, only vertical emotional reciprocity was negatively associated (β = −4.660; SE = 1.117) independently from individual reciprocity (β = −0.557; SE = 0.042). Complex interactions were found such that workplace reciprocity (1) may not uniformly benefit individuals and (2) related differently to depressive symptoms, depending on occupational group.

Conclusions: This study extends the existing literature with evidence on the multidimensional, contextual, and cross-level interaction associations of reciprocity as a key aspect of social capital on depressive symptoms.

Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine


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