Studies of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) or induced sputum are now well standardized and the exponential increase in publications about exhaled breath condensate reflects growing interest in a noninvasive diagnosis of pulmonary diseases in occupational medicine.
This review describes current techniques (FeNO, induced sputum, and exhaled breath condensate) for the study of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers.
These biomarkers are FeNO, cytokines, H2O2, 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrogen oxides. These techniques also include the study of markers of the toxic burden in the lungs (heavy metals and mineral compounds) that are important in occupational health exposure assessment.
In occupational medicine, the study of both volatile and nonvolatile respiratory biomarkers can be useful in medical surveillance of exposed workers, the early identification of respiratory diseases, or the monitoring of their development.
From the Université Lille Nord de France (Drs Chérot-Kornobis, Hulo, de Broucker, Hassoun, Lepage, Edmé, and Sobaszek), F-59 000 Lille, France; UDSL (Drs Chérot-Kornobis, Hulo, de Broucker, Hassoun, Lepage, Edmé, and Sobaszek), EA 4483, F-59 000 Lille, France; and CHU Lille (Drs Chérot-Kornobis, Hulo, de Broucker, Hassoun, Lepage, Edmé, and Sobaszek), F-59 000 Lille, France.
Address correspondence to: Nathalie Chérot-Kornobis, MD, Laboratoire Universitaire de Médecine du Travail—Université Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine—Pôle Recherche, 1 Place de Verdun, 59 045 Lille, France (email@example.com).
Authors Chérot-Kornobis, Hulo, de Broucker, Hassoun, Lepage, Edmé, and Sobaszek have no relationships/conditions/circumstances that present potential conflict of interest.
The JOEM Editorial Board and planners have no financial interest related to this research.