You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you...

If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in

Further Validation of the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator Scale

Winwood, Peter C. PhD; Peters, Roger PhD; Peters, Martin M Psych; Dollard, Maureen PhD

Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182479f77
Original Articles

Objective: Confirm the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI) scale capacity to facilitate routine assessment of psychological health of workers in high-stress environments.

Method: A cross-sectional study compared the PIRI scale scores with two experienced clinical psychologists' assessment of defined psychological injury in 93 participants. A second, longitudinal, study assessed PIRI predictive capacity for emotional exhaustion, physical health, and work engagement in 420 participants over 14 months.

Results: The PIRI scale was shown to (a) determine the degree of psychological injury in participants with high correspondence to a specialist clinical interview; and (b) predict future emotional exhaustion, physical health, and work engagement to a significantly better degree than the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and Kessler-10 measures.

Conclusions: The PIRI scale shows a valuable capacity to provide accurate routine psychological health assessment for at-risk workers in high-strain work environments.

Author Information

From the School of Psychology, Social Work, and Social Policy (Drs Winwood and Dollard), University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; and HEAS Consulting Psychologists (Dr Peters and Mr Peters), Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Address correspondence to: Peter C. Winwood, PhD, School of Psychology, Social Work, and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Magill Campus, St Bernards Road, Magill, South Australia 5703 (

Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

©2012The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine