Objective: To assess the effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from different particle sources on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, we measured TNF production from rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and human dendritic cells (DC) exposed to PM2.5 from different sources.
Methods: Fire-related PM2.5 samples, rural ambient, and urban indoor and outdoor samples were collected in the Southeast United States. Tumor necrosis factor release was measured from rat AM and human DC following incubation with PM2.5.
Results: Tumor necrosis factor release in AMs was greatest for fire-related PM2.5 compared with other samples (TNF: P value = 0.005; mortality: P value = 0.005). Tumor necrosis factor releases from the DCs and AMs exposed to fire-associated PM2.5 were strongly correlated (r = 0.87, P value < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Particulate matter exposure produces TNF release consistent with pulmonary inflammation in rat AMs and human DCs, with the response in rat AMs differing by particle source.
From the Environmental Health & Engineering, Inc (Drs Myatt, Kobzik, and MacIntosh), Needham, Mass; Amgen Inc (Dr Vincent), Thousand Oaks, Calif; The College of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Georgia (Dr Naeher), Athens, Ga; and Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health (Drs MacIntosh and Suh), Boston, Mass.
Address correspondence to: Helen Suh, ScD, Environmental Health Program, NORC at the University of Chicago, 1169 Commonwealth Ave., Netwon, MA 02465. E-mail: email@example.com.
* Work occurred while employed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Mass.
Funding was provided by the Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office through the US Forest Service Savannah River Under Interagency Agreement De -AI09-00SR22188, the Electric Power Research Institute, the American Petroleum Institute, and Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc.
Authors Suh, Myatt, Vincent, Kobzik, Naeher, and Macintosh have no commercial interest related to this research.
The JOEM Editorial Board and planners have no financial interest related to this research.