Objective: To assess the effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from different particle sources on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, we measured TNF production from rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and human dendritic cells (DC) exposed to PM2.5 from different sources.
Methods: Fire-related PM2.5 samples, rural ambient, and urban indoor and outdoor samples were collected in the Southeast United States. Tumor necrosis factor release was measured from rat AM and human DC following incubation with PM2.5.
Results: Tumor necrosis factor release in AMs was greatest for fire-related PM2.5 compared with other samples (TNF: P value = 0.005; mortality: P value = 0.005). Tumor necrosis factor releases from the DCs and AMs exposed to fire-associated PM2.5 were strongly correlated (r = 0.87, P value < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Particulate matter exposure produces TNF release consistent with pulmonary inflammation in rat AMs and human DCs, with the response in rat AMs differing by particle source.