Objective: As potential occupational exposure to nanomaterials becomes more prevalent, it is important that the principles of medical surveillance be considered for workers in the nanotechnology industry.
Methods: The principles of medical surveillance are reviewed to further the discussion of occupational health surveillance for workers exposed to nanomaterials.
Results: Because of the rapid evolution of nanotechnology, information may not be available to make a well-informed determination of all factors needed to evaluate risk of health effects from occupational exposure to nanomaterials.
Conclusion: Every workplace dealing with engineered nanomaterials should conduct hazard and exposure assessments as part of an overall surveillance needs assessment for nanotechnology workers. In workplaces where risk is felt to be present, or at least cannot be ruled out, initiation of medical surveillance is prudent to protect workers' health.