Skip Navigation LinksHome > May 2011 - Volume 53 - Issue 5 > Toenail, Blood, and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposur...
Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31821854da
Original Articles

Toenail, Blood, and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti ScD; Lin, Xihong PhD; Herrick, Robert F. ScD; Fang, Shona C. ScD; Cavallari, Jennifer M. ScD, CIH; Christiani, David C. MD, MPH; Weisskopf, Marc G. PhD, ScD

Collapse Box


Objective: This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers.

Methods: Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a work shift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n = 49), as well as blood and urine before (n = 27) and after (urine, n = 26; blood, n = 24) a work shift were collected.

Results: Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 7 to 12 months before toenail clipping date, but not 1 to 6 months. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese.

Conclusions: Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical work shift.

©2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics