Objective: To describe the relationship between nighttime awakenings and work performance.
Methods: Employees (N = 4188) at four US companies described their sleep patterns and completed the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Participants were categorized by number of nighttime awakenings: 0 (n = 464; 11%), 1 to 2 (n = 2373; 58%), 3 to 4 (n = 984; 24%), or ≥5 (n = 289; 7%). Work Limitations Questionnaire performance and productivity measures were compared among the groups using a one-way analysis of variance model.
Results: Thirty-one percent of the sample averaged ≥3 nighttime awakenings. Compared with respondents with fewer nighttime awakenings, these respondents had the greatest work performance and productivity impairments across a wide range of dimensions.
Conclusions: Workers who experienced ≥3 nighttime awakenings have poorer work productivity and performance than do workers who experience fewer awakenings.