You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you...

If you have access to this article through your institution,
you can view this article in

Impact of Nighttime Awakenings on Worker Productivity and Performance.

Zammit, Gary K. PhD; Joish, Vijay N. PhD; Kong, Meg C. MS; Balkrishnan, Rajesh PhD; Lerner, Debra PhD; Rosekind, Mark PhD

Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181d8db23
Original Articles

Objective: To describe the relationship between nighttime awakenings and work performance.

Methods: Employees (N = 4188) at four US companies described their sleep patterns and completed the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Participants were categorized by number of nighttime awakenings: 0 (n = 464; 11%), 1 to 2 (n = 2373; 58%), 3 to 4 (n = 984; 24%), or ≥5 (n = 289; 7%). Work Limitations Questionnaire performance and productivity measures were compared among the groups using a one-way analysis of variance model.

Results: Thirty-one percent of the sample averaged ≥3 nighttime awakenings. Compared with respondents with fewer nighttime awakenings, these respondents had the greatest work performance and productivity impairments across a wide range of dimensions.

Conclusions: Workers who experienced ≥3 nighttime awakenings have poorer work productivity and performance than do workers who experience fewer awakenings.

Author Information

From Clinilabs Inc (Dr Zammit), New York, NY; sanofi-aventis (Dr Joish), Bridgewater, NJ; Division of Pharmaceutical Administration (Ms Kong) and Colleges of Pharmacy and Public Health (Dr Balkrishan), Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Tufts–New England Medical Center (Dr Lerner), Boston, Mass; and Alertness Solutions (Dr Rosekind), Cupertino, Calif.

Address correspondence to: Gary Zammit, PhD, Clinilabs Inc, 1090 Amsterdam Avenue, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10025; E-mail:

©2010The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine