Objective: To evaluate the effects of outdoor air pollution, taking into account indoor air pollution, in Indonesia.
Methods: The subjects were 15,242 children from 2002 to 2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. The odds ratios and their confidence intervals for adverse health effects were estimated.
Results: Proximity increased the prevalence of acute respiratory infection both in urban and rural areas after adjusting for indoor air pollution. In urban areas, the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection increased by 1.012 (95% confidence intervals: 1.005 to 1.019) per 2 km proximity to a major road. Adjusted odds ratios tended to be higher in the high indoor air pollution group.
Conclusion: Exposure to traffic-related outdoor air pollution would increase adverse health effects after adjusting for indoor air pollution. Furthermore, indoor air pollution could exacerbate the effects of outdoor air pollution.
From the Department of Epidemiology (Dr Kashima, Dr Yorifuji, Ms Ibrahim, Dr Doi), Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan; Department of Environmental Health (Dr Yorifuji), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass; and Department of Environmental Epidemiology (Dr Tsuda), Okayama University Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama, Japan.
This study was supported by the Yakumo Foundation for Environmental Science.
Address correspondence to: Saori Kashima, MES, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan; E-mail: email@example.com.