Objective: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 represent a risk factor for this disease.
Methods: The study population included 262 workers with asbestosis and 265 matched controls. Information on cumulative asbestos exposure was available. A real-time PCR based on the 5′ nuclease assay was designed for the analysis of GSTP1 Ile105Val and Ala114Val polymorphisms.
Results: Asbestosis was associated with GSTP1 genotype coding for an enzyme with high conjugation capacity versus genotypes resulting in intermediate and low enzyme activity (odds ratio = 1.49, confidence interval = 1.06–2.10).
Conclusions: The key finding of the study was that GSTP1 genotype coding for an enzyme with high conjugation capacity significantly increases the risk of developing asbestosis.