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Effectiveness of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Reducing Criminal Activity in Liquor Stores: A Pilot Study

Casteel, Carri MPH, PhD; Peek-Asa, Corinne MPH, PhD; Howard, John MD; Kraus, Jess F. MPH, PhD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: May 2004 - Volume 46 - Issue 5 - p 450-458
doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000126025.14847.b1
Original Articles

Liquor store employees experience disproportionately higher rates of workplace injury death than employees in any other retail setting. However, efforts to introduce workplace violence prevention programs into liquor stores have been minimal. This study examines the effectiveness of a Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design intervention in reducing criminal activity in Santa Monica, California liquor stores. Nine stores enrolling in the study received an individualized intervention safety plan; the remaining 13 served as a comparison group. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to examine intervention effectiveness. The largest reductions in criminal activity occurred for robbery and shoplifting outcomes. We conclude that the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design program reduced crime and injury in liquor stores and educated small businesses about the risks associated with retail violence and the countermeasures that can be taken.

From the Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (Dr Casteel); Injury Prevention Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City (Dr Peek-Asa); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Dr Howard); and Southern California Injury Prevention Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles (Dr Kraus).

Address correspondence to: Carri Casteel, MPH, PhD, Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 137 East Franklin Street, Suite 500, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-7505; E-mail address: ccasteel@email.unc.edu.

©2004The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine